World’s first Carbon Fiber printer

World’s first Carbon Fiber printed machine:

World's first Carbon Fiber printed machine

World’s first Carbon Fiber printed machine


Carbon fiber is strong and lightweight. Building with it is both intimidatingly complex and prohibitively expensive—which is why Mark Forged has developed this new 3D printer which can build objects layer-by-layer using the stuff.

Unveiled at SolidWorks World 2014 in San Diego, the Mark One can print in carbon fiber, fiberglass, nylon and PLA. Most strikingly, it looks sleek. Real sleek. In fact, it measures just 23 inches wide, 12 inches tall and 13 inches deep, so it could even sit on a desktop alongside your Mac if you were so inclined.

The carbon fiber parts that the printer produces are 20 times stiffer and five times stronger than ABS, the commonly 3D-printed material, and have a higher strength-to-weight ratio than CNC-machined 6061-T6 aluminum. That’s because, so Mark Forged claims, the printed objects are “packed with tens of thousands of full length, continuous carbon fiber strands.”

Initially inspired by a desire to prototype racecar wings more quickly, there are many applications which would be well-served by the technology—from medical prosthetics to hobbyist drone manufacture. Fortunately, the printer won’t be limited to commercial use when it goes on sale. Available for pre-order from February and shipping some time in the second half of the year, the Mark One will retail at $5,000.

Attracted to Neanderthals

Attracted to Neanderthals:


Attracted to Neanderthals

Attracted to Neanderthals

Two new studies regarding our genetic relationship with Neanderthals have reached similar conclusions : Makes between 85,000 and 37,000 years after modern humans migrated groups outside Africa, who mated with Neanderthals. Neanderthals died out 30,000 years ago, are the closest relatives to humans , sharing a common ancestor 600,000 years ago.

The researchers say that the Neanderthal DNA related to the hair and skin is particularly present in the DNA of some modern humans . ” In an article published in the journal Nature , researchers at Harvard Medical School and the Max Planck Institute of Anthropology evolutionary in Germany concluded that Neanderthal DNA is particularly similar to the DNA of Europeans and Asians, while another group of researchers from the University of Washington came to similar conclusions. Both studies indicate that Neanderthals genes are now very common in non-African people alive today.

Thus, although the stooped posture and thick eyebrow Neanderthal not seem attractive to the contemporary human being , perhaps a being that was protected by a tangle of hair – hair full, with the strongest bark skin was just the best thing long ago modern humans had ever seen. And Neanderthals also had larger cranial capacity – so, you know , certainly had the wit and wisdom of human courting newcomers.

Disease picked up through interbreeding with Neanderthals

Disease in people today were picked up through interbreeding with Neanderthals:


Disease in people today were picked up through interbreeding with Neanderthals

Disease in people today were picked up through interbreeding with Neanderthals

Genome studies reveal that our species (Homo sapiens) mated with Neanderthals after leaving Africa.

But what was clear before this Neanderthal DNA did and if there was any impact on human health .

When Neanderthals and modern humans met and mixed , they were on the very edge of being compatible biological ”

Harvard Medical School Prof David Reich

Between 2% and 4% of the genetic fingerprint of non-Africans today came from Neanderthals.

By screening the genomes of 1,004 modern humans, Sriram Sankararaman and colleagues identified the regions that carry different versions of Neanderthal genes.

Genetic variant associated with a difficulty in quitting should be found to have a Neanderthal origin is a surprise.

There is no suggestion of our evolutionary cousins ​​were smoking in their caves.

Instead, the researchers argue , this mutation may have more than one function , so the modern effect of this marker in smoking behavior may be one of the impacts it has among many.

The researchers found that the DNA Neanderthal not evenly distributed throughout the human genome , rather than being commonly found in the regions that affect the skin and hair .

This suggests some variants of the gene provided a quick way to modern to suit the new cooler environments they encountered as they moved in Eurasia humans. When populations were found , Neanderthals had already been adapted to these conditions for several hundred thousand years.

Chubby Chasers once covered the gamut from Britain to Siberia, but became extinct about 30,000 years ago, as Homo sapiens was spreading from an African country.

Neanderthal ancestry was found in regions of the genome associated with the regulation of skin pigmentation .

I think what we’re seeing in many ways they are the dying remains of this extinct genome as slowly purged human populations ”

Joshua Akey University of Washington

“We found evidence that genes of skin Neanderthals did Europeans and East Asians more evolutionarily fit,” said Benjamin Vernot , University of Washington, co -author of a separate study in Science magazine .

The genes of keratin filaments , a fibrous protein that lends itself to the hardness of the skin, hair and nails, also enriched with Neanderthal DNA . This may have helped provide newcomers with thicker insulation against the cold, the scientists suggest .

“It is tempting to think that Neanderthals already adapted to the environment does not always lead African and genetics ( modern) humans,” said Professor David Reich of Harvard Medical School , co-author of the Nature paper .

But other gene variants influence human diseases , such as type 2 diabetes, long-term depression , lupus, biliary cirrhosis – an autoimmune liver disease – Crohn ‘s disease and . For Crohn ‘s disease , Neanderthals passed on markers that increase and decrease the risk of disease .

Asked whether our ancient relatives actually suffering from these diseases as well, or whether mutations in question only affected the risk of disease when transplanted to a modern human gene pool , Mr. Sankararaman said : “We have a fine knowledge of genetics the Neanderthals to answer this , “but added that further study of their genomes may she light on this issue.

Joshua Akey , University of Washington, one of the authors of the journal Science , added: “Mixture happened relatively recently in evolutionary terms , so you can not expect the entire Neanderthal DNA have been swept away by this point.

“I think what we’re seeing in many ways they are the dying remains of this extinct genome as slowly purged of the human population .

However, some regions of the genome were found to be devoid of Neanderthal DNA , suggesting that certain genes had such adverse effects in the offspring of matings by modern Neanderthal that indeed have been emptied and actively quickly through natural selection .

“We found that there are large regions of the genome where most modern humans have little or no Neanderthal ancestry. ”

“This reduction of Neanderthal ancestry was probably due to selection against genes that were wrong – harmful – . For us ”

Neanderthal deficient regions include genes that are specifically expressed in the testes and in the X ( female ) chromosome .

This suggests that some human hybrids – modern Neanderthals had reduced fertility and in some cases were sterile.

” We are told that when Neanderthals and modern humans met and mixed , they were on the verge of being biologically compatible” said Professor Reich.

Another region of the genome includes genes neanderthales lacked a gene called FOXP2 , which is believed to play an important role in human speech .

Joshua Akey said his team’s findings were consistent with that there have been multiple pulses cross between modern humans and Neanderthals .


Monsanto Says its going Organic

 Monsanto Says its going Organic:
Monsanto Says its going Organic

Monsanto Says its going Organic

The company , whose name is synonymous with big Ag has revolutionized the way we grow food – for good or ill . Activists insulted by such practices mustache – spinning like suing farmers who grow back or licensed seed filling the world of super weeds resistant to Roundup. Then there is the reputation – despised by some of Monsanto held by others, as the largest provider of genetically modified crop commodities such as corn and soybeans edited with DNA from another location , nature designed to have qualities not just think .

It is not particularly surprising that the company is introducing new strains of familiar food crops, Monsanto invented and endowed by their Creator with powers and abilities beyond what you would normally see in the produce section . The lettuce is sweet and crunchy romaine and has the quality of fresh iceberg stay . Chilies come in miniature sizes , in one portion to reduce leftovers. Broccoli has three times the normal amount of glucoraphanin , a compound that helps increase the levels of antioxidants. Stark Department , division of world trade , came with them.

” Grocery stores are looking for in the produce aisle for something that appears, feels different ,” says Avery. ” And consumers are looking for the same thing. ‘ If the team is good , they will know very soon. Frescada lettuce, peppers and Beneforté BellaFina brands – cheerful broccoli registered trademark of a subsidiary all-but – anonymous Monsanto called Seminis – being launched in supermarkets in the U.S..

But here’s the twist : lettuce , peppers and broccoli – and a melon and onion, with a watermelon before following -are not genetically modified at all. Monsanto created all these vegetables using good old-fashioned crossbreeding , the same technology that farmers have been using to optimize crops for millennia. That does not mean they are low-tech , exactly . Stark Division is leveraging scientific knowledge accumulated Monsanto to create vegetables that have all the benefits of genetically modified organisms, without any of the ick factor Frankenfoods …

Signs Of Consciousness Found In Rats Brains After Death

Signs Of Consciousness Found In Rats Brains After Death:



Signs Of Consciousness Found In Rats Brains After Death:

Signs Of Consciousness Found In Rats Brains After Death:

Jim Borjigin equipment University of Michigan electrodes implanted in the surface of the brains of nine rats , then animals were injected with potassium chloride , stop the heart and blood flow . At that time , rats are considered ” clinically dead.”

However, for a maximum of 30 seconds, the electrodes of the researchers detected patterns synchronized , high-frequency activity called gamma waves. In humans , some scientists have suggested that gamma waves could play a role in the interaction of perception , consciousness, and intention known as consciousness.

“With the introduction of evidence of the activity of the highly organized and neurophysiological features consistent with conscious processing on the verge of brain death , we now offer a scientific framework to begin to explain the very lucid and more real than real – mental experiences reported by near death “survivors Borjigin team wrote .

85 Elites Have As Much Wealth As Half The World’s Population

85 People, a group that could easily fit on a single subway car:

85 Wealthy Elites Have As Much Wealth As Half The World’s Population

85 Wealthy Elites Have As Much Wealth As Half The World’s Population

The extent to which both global wealth has become cornered by a virtual handful of so-called “global elite” is exposed in a new report by Oxfam on Monday. He warned that the 85 richest people in the world share a combined wealth of £ 1 billion , as much as the poorest 3.5 billion of the world population .

The organization fears that the development of this concentration of economic resources is threatening the political stability and increasing social tensions.

The report found that in recent decades , the rich have successfully managed to skew political influence policies in their favor on issues ranging from financial deregulation , tax havens to reduce tax rates on high incomes and cuts in public services for most. Since the late 1970s , tax rates for the wealthy have declined in 29 of the 30 countries for which data are available , according to the report .

Plants Energy Through Quantum Entanglement

Plants Energy Through Quantum Entanglement:

Plants Energy Through Quantum Entanglement

Plants Energy Through Quantum Entanglement


Biophysical theorize that plants exploit the mysterious world of quantum entanglement in photosynthesis . The evidence to date has been purely circumstantial, but now scientists have discovered a characteristic of plants that can not be explained by classical physics .

They are like mini -computers, quantum capable of scanning all possible options in order to choose the most efficient paths or solutions . For plants, this means the ability to make the most of the energy they receive and then deliver that energy from leaves with almost perfect efficiency.

The theory is that plants have light collection macromolecules in cells that can transfer their energy through molecular vibrations – vibrations that have no equivalent in classical physics .

In the new study , researchers at UCL identified a specific feature in biological systems that can only be predicted by quantum physics. The team learned that the energy transfer in light-harvesting macromolecules is facilitated by specific vibrational motions of the chromophore . Quantum effects improve the efficiency of plant photosynthesis in a way that classical physics can not afford.

What Happens When Body Dies

Scientists Close To Understanding What Happens When Body Dies:


Understanding What Happens When Body Dies

Understanding What Happens When Body Dies


Scientists are stretching the limits of what happens when the body dies – and learn more about ways to stop the process.

    Death is the end result for 100 percent of patients. But there is growing evidence that revival is possible that at least some patients whose heart and lungs have stopped working for many minutes , even hours. And brain death – when the brain stops functioning irreversibly – is also proving to be less open and closed.

    For decades , doctors have reported cases in which immersed in very cold water people have revived after hours have passed. Normally , brain cells begin to die within minutes after the heart stops pumping oxygen.

    Many studies have found that hypothermia protects the brain by decreasing its need for oxygen and delaying cell death. Cooling Body has become common for many patients after cardiac arrest.

    Further cooling of a few degrees below normal temperature may also cause cell damage.

    Cardiologists are tinkering to find the best approach. Two recent studies presented at the scientific meeting of the American Heart Association in Dallas in November tried to see if early cooling by paramedics after they get a heart is restarted helpful ( did not seem to affect survival or brain damage ) or cooling 91.4 degrees Fahrenheit or 96.8 degrees for the first day in the hospital brings better results (again, not much difference ) .

    Then there is the question of how long to perform CPR . A 2012 study found the average duration in hospital was 20 minutes for patients who did not survive , 12 minutes for those who did. The AHA recommends keeping bystanders perform CPR until emergency medical services .

    A Japanese study presented at the AHA meeting , based on six years of data on survival from cardiac arrest across Japan , concluded that it is worth continuing CPR for 38 minutes or more and still have the opportunity to avoid serious damage to the brain.

    Definition of brain death is increasingly complex, researchers find signs of activity in both human and animal subjects whose brain waves first show that they have ” flat -lined ” to the point that there is no brain function. While some doctors use the EEG as a final check for signs of life in the brain , most are based on a series of tests of reflexes and respiration given for several hours to determine brain death …

Smoking increases child being gay

A woman’s lifestyle during pregnancy is directly linked to  whether they may be gay, or having an impact on their IQ


A neuroscientist has claimed a woman's lifestyle during pregnancy is directly linked to the development of their children, influencing whether they may be gay and having an impact on their IQ

A neuroscientist has claimed a woman’s lifestyle during pregnancy is directly linked to the development of their children, influencing whether they may be gay and having an impact on their IQ


Women who smoke or who lead a stressful life during pregnancy can affect sexuality and your child’s IQ , a neuroscientist said .
The lifestyle of a pregnant woman to have an impact on the development of their babies woman – drinking, drugs and even live in an area with a lot of pollution that affects children in later life .

Dick Swaab , professor of neurobiology at the University of Amsterdam , suggests drinking and taking drugs can lower the IQ of a child while taking synthetic hormones and smoking can increase the likelihood of being lesbian or bisexual girls.

Having more older brothers are also thought to increase the possibility that the boys are gay, possibly by the development of the immune system of the mother to be stronger to male hormones with each child born replies .

” Prenatal exposure to nicotine and amphetamines increases the likelihood of daughters lesbians”

“Pregnant women who suffer from stress are also more likely to have gay children of both sexes, as the high level of the stress hormone cortisol affects the production of sex hormones in the fetus. ”

He said the brain of the fetus begins to develop within two weeks , with all that introduces toxins in the body that has an impact on this development. Studies show women taking synthetic estrogen between 1939 and 1960 to reduce the chances of miscarriage had a higher probability of bisexuality and lesbianism in her daughters.

Swaab added: ” In women who drink heavily , cells that were destined to migrate through the fetal brain may end up leaving the brain as a whole. ”

Living in a hot zone is linked to an increased risk of autism.

Swaab said lifestyle factors are only one influence , with genetics play the biggest role , but said the research shows that brain development during pregnancy is directly related to the lifestyles of adults.

Pain Sensitivity in Brain Structure

Brain Structure Predicts Pain Sensitivity:

Brain Structure  Pain Sensitivity

Brain Structure Pain Sensitivity

Some people feel pain more intensely than others, and new research suggests differences in pain sensitivity may be related to differences in brain structure .

In a new study , the researchers asked 116 healthy people to rate the intensity of their pain when a small spot on the skin of your arm or leg is heated to 120 degrees Fahrenheit. A few days after the test of pain sensitivity , participants had their brains scanned in a MRI machine .

The results showed a link between an individual ‘s sensitivity to pain, and the thickness of the cortex of his brain, in regions that have been previously linked to attention control and introspection. The thinner the crust in these areas, people were more sensitive to painful stimuli . [5 Surprising Facts about pain ]

“Subjects with higher pain intensities had less gray matter in brain regions that contribute to the control of thoughts and internal attention ,” said study researcher Nichole Emerson , a graduate student at Wake Forest Baptist Medical Center.

Understanding how the experience of pain in the brain is essential for the development of treatments for people who suffer chronic pain, and scientists are looking for why people react differently to pain .

A previous study found recently that structural differences in the brain predicts whether people healed after injury or chronic pain developed . Furthermore, researchers have found that the pain itself can change brain structure , even temporarily .

Brain areas that the new study would be linked to pain sensitivity are part of a network of regions that are activated when people are resting or daydreaming , or in other words , are in ” default mode . ”

Maybe that’s why people with lower gray matter volume in these areas are more sensitive to pain , and vice versa, according to the researchers .

” The default mode activity can compete with brain activity that generates an experience of pain,” said researcher Robert Coghill , a professor of neurobiology and anatomy at Wake Forest Baptist . In other words, people who spend more time in the ” default mode ” may be less sensitive to pain.

Other areas that the researchers found to be associated with pain include the posterior parietal cortex is thought to play an important role in the control of attention . People who can best keep their attention focused may also be best to keep the pain under control, Coghill said.

The Brain cleans itself while Sleeping

Scientists discover the first real reason we need sleep:

  Scientists discover the first real reason we need sleep:

Scientists discover the first real reason we need sleep:


Scientists report that the first major mechanical reason our brain needs sleep – certain cleaning mechanisms in the brain work better when we shut down the brain .

Similar to how dump trucks take to the streets of the city during the predawn hours, because there is less traffic , our brains cleaners also work better when there is less going on.

“This study shows that the brain has different functional states when asleep and when awake ,” said study researcher Maiken Nedergaard of the University of Rochester.

” In fact, the nature of restful sleep seems to be the result of active settlement of the byproducts of neuronal activity that accumulate during wakefulness. ”

We’ve known that our brain memories are consolidated during sleep and perform other important functions.

There are also benefits for the body during sleep – rest allows our muscles , bones and organs to repair themselves .

It also keeps our immune system healthy.

We know that sleep has all these benefits, but until now we did not know any of the specific changes that lead to these benefits of sleep .

All our cells accumulate while working residues and waste products can be toxic. If not removed they can accumulate and kill cells . Throughout the rest of the lymph system these waste products washed away the body, but the brain is cut from these actions because of the blood – brain barrier .

When the brain is asleep, the channels between the cells grow . This allows the fluid in the depths of the brain tissue to remove toxic proteins that accumulate during the day, including the kind that are responsible for neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimer’s.

Pictured above , from Xie et . al in Science, shows that when mice sleep , the full ( pale blue ) liquid channels between neurons expand and flush out waste .

Chemists produced artificial plastic cell

First Plastic Cell With Working Organelle:

chemists have successfully produced an artificial cell

Chemists have successfully produced an artificial cell

It is hard for chemists to match the chemistry in living cells In their laboratories.  In a cell many complex reactions are taking place in an overfull Simultaneously , small container , in various compartments and incredibly efficiently. This is why chemists attempt to imitate the cell in various ways. In doing so , they hope to learn more about the origin of life and the transition from chemistry to biology.

Jan van Hest and his PhD candidate. Their organelles Ruud Peters created by tiny spheres filling with chemicals and placing these inside a water droplet . They then cleverly covered the water droplet with a polymer layer – the cell wall . Using fluorescence , They were able to show the planned cascade of reactions, it did in fact take place . This means that they are the first polymer chemists to create a working cell with organelles . Just like in the cells in our bodies , the chemicals are able to enter the cell plasma following the reaction in the organelles , to be processed elsewhere in the cell .

Creating cell-like structures is currently very popular in the field of chemistry , with various methods being tried at the Institute for Molecules and Materials (IMM ) . Professor Wilhelm Huck, for example , is making cells from tiny droplets of solutions very similar to cytoplasm , and Van Hest ‘s group is building cells using polymers .

Competing groups are working closer to biology , making cells from fatty acids. We would like to do the same in the future . Another step would be to make cells produce their own energy supply . Also we are working on ways of controlling the movement of chemicals within the cell, organelles towards . By simulating these things , we are able to better understand living cells. One day we will even be able to make something that looks very much like the real thing.

237 Millionaires serving in Congress

There are 237 millionaires serving in Congress , according to 2008 figures:


237 Millionaires in Congress

237 Millionaires in Congress

That’s a slight decrease from the previous year , when 239 millionaires in the House and Senate were recorded. But still reflects the fact that the average legislator is much richer than your typical constituent. While about one percent of Americans are millionaires , 44 percent of those serving in Congress they can say the same .

“The biggest takeaway from this is that even thought the collective wealth of members of Congress seem to have diminished , members of Congress are still much richer than the average American – and even richer than many rich Americans, ” spokesman Dave Levinthal told Hotsheet CRP .

Richest member of Congress is Republican Darrell Issa of California congressman, whose net worth is estimated at more than $ 250 million. It is followed by four Democrats : Jane Harman of California ( approx. $ 245 million ) , Herb Kohl of Wisconsin ( approx. $ 215 million ), Mark Warner of Virginia ( approx. U $ S 210 million) and John Kerry of Massachusetts ( approx. $ 209 million).

Among the 25 richest lawmakers – including bold names Nancy Pelosi, Dianne Feinstein and Olympia Snowe – there are 14 Democrats and 11 Republicans , suggesting no clear divisions between wealth party.

The net value calculated for legislators is not exact, and CPR offers a wide range of possible net present values ​​for each member. Levinthal, said lawmakers tend to report assets and liabilities, income, grants and loan transactions , as required by law, in very broad ranges , figure in the list , he said, represents an estimate between two possible extremes. (Primary residences and government salaries are not reported , and therefore not included.)

The less wealthy member of Congress , according to the report, Florida Democrat Alcee Hastings, whose net worth is estimated to be negative $ 4,732,002 . (!) Other legislators to the bottom 25 are Max Baucus of Montana and Dennis Kucinich of Ohio . Note, however, that these legislators are likely to have undeclared assets , including their homes .

In the Executive Branch , Secretary of State Hillary Clinton is the second richest , with a net worth of approximately $ 21 million , which is just behind Exchange Commission Chairman Mary L. Schapiro. The figure is less rich administration Vice President Joe Biden, whose net worth is estimated at only $ 27,012 . ( President Obama comes in at $ 3,670,505 . )

The median reportable net worth of senators was reduced from $ 2,270,000 to $ 1,790,000 robust yet between 2007 and 2008. Kerry , Warner, Feinstein and Senator John McCain all experienced two -digit percentage declines in their average , estimated wealth between the two years .

The median reportable net worth for House members in 2008 was $ 622,254 .

Levinthal points out that ” in some cases [ lawmakers ‘] wealth is derived from the same companies that in many cases benefit from the taxpayers. ”

” The main companies in which members of Congress are investing , many of them are TARP recipients that have received billions and billions of dollars from you and me ,” he said .

Among the companies in which members of Congress have assets are Bank of America and Goldman Sachs.

Y Chromosome Retains Key Genes for Fertility

Study Dispels Theories of Y Chromosome’s Demise:

Stripped-Down Chromosome Retains Key Genes for Fertility

Stripped-Down Chromosome Retains Key Genes for Fertility


“Y chromosome has lost 90 percent of genes that once shared with the X chromosome, and some scientists have speculated that the Y chromosome will disappear in less than 5 million years ,” said evolutionary biologist Melissa A. Wilson Sayres a Miller Postdoctoral Fellow in the Department of Integrative Biology , University of California, Berkeley, and lead author of the new analysis .

Some mammals have lost their Y chromosome, although they still have men and women and reproduce normally . Researchers reported some shuffling genes in mice to create Y- less males could produce normal offspring , leading some analysts to wonder if the chromosome is superfluous.

“Our study shows that genes that have remained , and those who migrated from X to Y , that are important , and human and will stay for a long time,” he said.

Wilson Sayres and coauthor Rasmus Nielsen, in PLoS Genetics that patterns of variation in the Y chromosome among the 16 men are consistent with the selection naturally acts to maintain gene content there, many of which have been shown to play a role in male fertility. Insignificant size of the Y chromosome – which contains 27 unique genes in front of thousands of people in the other chromosomes – is a sign that is lean and stripped to essentials.

“The results are quite impressive. They show that because there is a lot of natural selection working on the Y chromosome , which has to be much more depending on the chromosome of people previously thought,” Nielsen said.

Variations in the Y chromosomes are used to track human populations moved around the world, and according to Nielsen , the new research will help improve estimates of the evolutionary history of humans.

” Melissa has shown that this strong negative selection – natural selection to eliminate deleterious genes – tends to make us think the dates are older than they are , which gives very different estimates of the history of our ancestors,” Nielsen said.  And it has degraded over the past 200 million

Before about 200 million years ago when mammals were relatively new to the Earth, the first versions of the sex chromosomes, X and Y, were like other pairs of chromosomes in each generation , they swapped a pair of genes for the children were a mix of genes from their parents. Fertilized eggs obtained two proto -X became females and eggs with a proto -X and proto -Y became men.

But for some reason , said Wilson Sayres , the gene that triggers the cascade of events that result in male characteristics became fixed on the Y chromosome and attracted other gene specific , such as those that control the development of the testes men , sperm and semen. Many of them proved to be harmful to women , so that the X and Y stopped exchanging genes and the two chromosomes began to evolve separately.

“Now the X and Y do not exchange DNA over most of its length , which means that Y can not be efficiently fix errors , so degraded over time,” he said. “In XX females , the X still has a partner to exchange with and correct mistakes , so we think the X has also degraded . ”

Wilson Sayres was fascinated by the strange story of the sex chromosomes , and in particular , the lack of genetic variation worldwide in the Y chromosome compared to the range observed in the DNA in the non-sex chromosomes. This variation , although used to trace human history, was poorly characterized in whole chromosome Y. .

” Y chromosomes are more similar to each other than we expect ,” said Wilson Sayres . “There has been some debate about whether this is because there are fewer men who contribute to the next generation , or whether natural selection acts to eliminate variation . ”

Did genes contribute fewer males the Y chromosome ?

UC Berkeley researchers showed that if fewer males were the only cause of low variability , mean that less than 1 in 4 men throughout history had happened in his chromosome each generation. Variations in other human chromosomes , including the X chromosome, making it an unlikely scenario . Instead, showed low variation will be explained by intense natural selection , ie , a strong evolutionary pressure to weed out the bad mutations that eventually cut the chromosome to its essential elements.

” We show that a model of purifying selection acting on the Y chromosome to eliminate harmful mutations , in combination with a moderate reduction in the number of men who are going into their chromosomes and may explain low Y diversity , ” said Wilson Sayres .

The researchers also found that 27 genes on the Y chromosome – 17 humans retained after 200 million years , and 10 genes more recently acquired but little known – are likely to be affected by natural selection . Most new gene, called ampliconic genes are present in multiple copies in the chromosome and the loss of one or more copies has been related to male infertility.

“These ampliconic regions that we have not really understood until now are obviously very important and probably should be researched and studied for fertility ,” he said .

Wilson Sayres was able to accurately measure the variable Y for first comparing the variation in the chromosome of a person with the variation in other 22 pairs of the person (called autosomes ) , the X chromosome and the mitochondrial DNA. She used data from the entire genome of 16 men whose DNA was sequenced by the company based in Mountain View , Complete Genomics Inc. , which is the most accurate of the Y chromosome sequences. The company was recently acquired by BGI , the Genome Institute of Bejing .

Comparative studies of populations of the variation in the Y chromosome are in their infancy , said, noting that more than 36 mammalian genomes sequenced to date, the full Y chromosomes are only available for three. Most human genomes sequenced + 1000 no longer have sufficiently accurate coverage And to make this type of comparison among individuals, but advances in technology to better characterize facilitate future DNA analysis of the Y chromosome , said.

Artificial Bone Marrow

Researchers Develop Artificial Bone Marrow:

 Hematopoietic Stem Cells

Hematopoietic Stem Cells

Blood cells such as erythrocytes or immune cells are continuously replaced by new supplied hematopoietic stem cells are found in a specialized bone marrow niche . Hematopoietic stem cells can be used for treatment of blood diseases such as leukemia. Patient affected cells are replaced by healthy blood stem cells from a donor eligible .

However, not all leukemia patients can be treated in this way, as the appropriate number of transplants is not enough. This problem could be solved by the reproduction of hematopoietic stem cells. These cells maintain their stem cell properties in their natural environment only , that is, in its bone marrow niche . Out of this niche market , properties are modified. Therefore, stem cell reproduction requires a similar stem cell niche in the bone marrow environment .

Stem cell niche, is a complex microscopic environment that has specific properties . The relevant areas are highly porous bone and spongelike . This not only accommodate dimensional environment of bone cells and hematopoietic stem cells, but also various other types of cells with which signal substances are exchanged. The space between the cells has a matrix ensuring a certain stability and provides cells with anchorage points. In the stem cell niche , cells with nutrients and oxygen are supplied.

Young Investigators Group “Stem Cell- Material Interactions ” led by Dr. Cornelia Lee- Thedieck composed of scientists from the Institute of Functional Interfaces GAME (IFG ), the Max Planck Institute for Intelligent Systems , Stuttgart, and the University of Tübingen. Artificially reproduces the main properties of natural bone marrow in the laboratory. With the aid of synthetic polymers , scientists created a porous structure simulating cancellous bone structure in the area of the bone marrow blood forming . Building blocks of proteins similar to anchor the cells are added to those in the matrix of the bone marrow. Scientists also insert other types of cells of the stem cell niche in the structure in order to ensure the exchange of substances .

Researchers then introduced hematopoietic stem cells isolated from cord blood in this artificial bone marrow. Subsequent breeding of the cells took several days . Analyzes with different methods revealed that the cells actually play in the newly developed artificial bone marrow . Compared with standard cell culture methods , more stem cells retain their specific properties in the artificial bone marrow.

The newly developed artificial bone marrow has significant properties of natural bone marrow , can now be used by scientists to study the interactions between the materials and the stem cells in the laboratory in detail . This will help you discover how the behavior of stem cells can be influenced and controlled by synthetic materials. This knowledge could contribute to producing an artificial stem cell niche for the specific reproduction of the mother and the treatment of leukemia cells ten or fifteen years from now .

Red Blood Cells Take On New Geometry During Clotting

Red Blood Cells Take On Many-Sided Shapes:

Red Blood Cells Take On Many-Sided Shape During Clotting

Red Blood Cells Take On Many-Sided Shape












Red blood cells are real levers of change in body shape, perhaps the most malleable of all cell types , transformation – among other forms – in compressed discs able to pass through capillaries with diameters less than the cell itself blood . While the study of how blood clots John W. contract Weisel , Ph.D. , Professor of Cell and Developmental Biology at the Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania, and his colleagues discovered a new geometry that red blood cells are supposed to when compressed during clot formation .

Although red blood cells were visualized for the first time in the mid-17th century and studied extensively since then , this new study , published online ahead of print in the journal Blood, describes a previously unknown and new function potential of red blood cells . The Penn team found that red blood cells can be compressed into multifaceted structures close together – polyhedral – instead bi – concave , free-flowing form of the disc.

What is more , contrary to expectations , the fibrin and platelet aggregates which form highly clots are mainly employed on the outside of clots , with red blood cells crowded into the clot , while the content of clots are more homogeneous before shrinkage occurs .

Hired clots can form a watertight seal and help prevent vascular obstruction, but confer resistance to penetration of drugs that break down fibrin, the structural component of blood clots , one common treatment option for heart attacks and strokes.

” When I first saw this, he thought :” This can not be biological , ‘”says Weisel . The team first saw the red blood cells shaped polyhedron – when the coagulation process of contraction is studied using a novel MRI technology , with the co -authors of T2 Biosystems, along with co -author Douglas Cines , MD , director of the Coagulation Laboratory and Professor of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine at Penn. They observed a signal indicating tight red blood cells.

The clot network clots are dimensional network of fibers , mainly consisting of the blood protein fibrinogen , which is converted to fibrin during coagulation , and platelets , which aggregate by binding to fibrin once activated . A blood clot must have the proper degree of rigidity and plasticity to stop the flow of blood when tissue is damaged , however , be flexible enough that it does not block the blood flow .

After a clot forms , actin and myosin in platelets initiate the contraction process and cause the clot is reduced to about one third of its original size. This is an important step to stop bleeding , to reduce the blockage in the blood vessel , and to provide a matrix for the migration of cells involved in wound healing . Red blood cells are involved in the contraction process , especially in the venous system , and get pulled by platelets into the clot, blood and the study indicated .

Little is known about the structure of the contracted clots or the role of red blood cells in the contraction process . “We found that the contracted blood clots develop a remarkable structure with a mesh of fibrin and platelet aggregates outside the clot and close packing , tiled matrix of polyhedral erythrocytes compressed inside ,” says Weisel .

The team also saw the same morphology of compacted clots after initiating coagulation activators and also with several clots formed from reconstituted human blood cellular components and blood plasma and mouse . Such matrices polyhedral packing of erythrocytes or polyhedrocytes as researchers dubbed them , were also observed in human arterial thrombi taken from patients who had heart attacks . This form is likely taken up by the red blood cells when contracted or compressed together when platelets clot in order to decrease the volume , surface energy , or the energy of bending , the authors assume .

Cines notes that these findings may have clinical implications . Doctors need to inject tPA as thrombolytic agents to quickly break thrombi , clots that obstruct blood flow , for example, in the coronary arteries to treat a heart attack or arteries leading to the brain to treat stroke. It is well known that thrombi develop time be broken , which is one reason why early intervention resistance is important . The nearly impermeable barrier formed by the red blood cells within contracted clots was observed in the study of the blood can help explain why . Clot contraction could be a target of intervention to prevent the formation of densely packed array polyhedrocytes .

New chip incorporating ultra-low consumption

New chip consumes 50 million times less than a conventional light bulb:

New chip consumes 50 million times less than a conventional light bulb:

New chip consumes 50 million times less than a conventional light bulb:



Low consumption means the device can be powered by reducing energy collected from the environment ( light, vibrations , temperature variations , etc. . ) Thus, energy independence is achieved , as no batteries are required for operation .

The research , authored by Antonio López- Martín and Iñigo Cenoz -Villanueva , was awarded the prize for the best presentation at the 7th International Conference on Sensor Technology (ICTS ) . This is a major international forum in the field of sensor technology and applications; 188 works from 38 countries were submitted in this latest edition.

The winning paper was the result of the thesis project of telecommunication engineering student Cenoz – Iñigo Villanueva. His project was supervised by Antonio Lopez – Martin, Professor, Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering and Deputy Director of the School of Industrial Engineering and Telecommunications .

Wireless sensor networks are the main application of the developed device. These networks are composed of two main elements: the sensor nodes that detect the parameters of the individual or the surroundings (temperature , humidity , heart rate , presence, etc. ) , and the actuators that trigger actions ( to switch devices on or outside , through the generation of neurological stimuli, etc. . ) Sensors and actuators communicate with each other and with other networks such as the Internet via radio waves without wires. It is the technology that in recent years it has boomed because of its many applications .

This research group Communications and Microwave Signal NUP / UPNA ‘ s was recognized again in 2012 to mark the 12th Talgo Award for Technological Innovation . On that occasion the winning project was aimed at providing an ecosystem of railroad with intelligence through wireless sensor networks for ultra low power consumption whenever possible driven by the available environmental energy in railway wagons themselves.

Life does not end and it can last forever

Quantum Theory Proves Consciousness Moves To Another Universe At Death:


Scientists Claim That Quantum Theory Proves Consciousness Moves To Another Universe At Death

Scientists Claim That Quantum Theory Proves Consciousness Moves To Another Universe At Death

Lance is an expert in regenerative medicine and chief scientific officer of Advanced Cell Technology Company. Before he was known for his extensive research that deals with stem cells, was also famous for several successful experiments in animal cloning endangered species .

But not long ago , the scientist involved with physics, quantum mechanics and astrophysics. This explosive mixture has given birth to the new theory of biocentrism , the teacher has been preaching since. Biocentrism teaches that life and consciousness are fundamental to the universe. It is consciousness that creates the material universe , and not vice versa .

Spear points to the structure of the universe and the laws , forces and constants of the universe seem finely tuned for life , which means the existing intelligence before importing. It also states that space and time are not objects or things, but rather the tools of our animal understanding. Lanza said that we time and space around us ” like turtles with shells . ” Which means that when the projectile leaves (space and time ) , we still exist .

The theory implies that there simply is not the death of consciousness. It only exists as a thought, because people identify with his body. They believe that the body will sooner or later die, thinking that your conscience will also disappear. If the body generates consciousness, then consciousness dies when the body dies . But if the body receives consciousness in the same way that a cable satellite signals , and then , of course , consciousness does not end with the death of the physical vehicle. Indeed , consciousness exists outside the constraints of time and space. It can be anywhere : in the human body and beyond . In other words, is not local in the sense that quantum objects are not local.

Lanza also believes that there may be multiple universes simultaneously. In a universe , the body may be dead. And in another continues to exist , consciousness , who emigrated to this universe absorbing . This means that a dead person while traveling through the same tunnel ends not in hell or in heaven , but in a similar world that he or she once inhabited , but this time with life. And so on , ad infinitum . It’s almost like an effect beyond the cosmic Russian doll.
multiple worlds

This instilling hope, but highly controversial theory Lanza has many supporters unconscious , not just mere mortals who want to live forever, but also some renowned scientists . These are physicists and astrophysicists tend to agree with the existence of parallel worlds and suggest the possibility of multiple universes. Multiverse ( multiverse ) is a scientific concept of the call, which they defend. They believe that there are no physical laws that prohibit the existence of parallel worlds.

The first was a science fiction writer HG Wells , who proclaimed in 1895 , in his story ” The Door in the Wall” . And after 62 years , this idea was developed by Dr. Hugh Everett in his graduate thesis at Princeton University . Basically states that at one point the universe is divided into innumerable similar cases. And the next moment, these universes ” newborn ” was divided in a similar manner. In some of these worlds may be present : reading this article in a universe, or watch TV in another.

The trigger for these multiplyingworlds factor is our actions, Everett said . If we make some choices , instant universe is divided into two with different versions of the results.

In the 1980s , Andrei Linde, scientist at the Institute of Physics of the Lebedev developed the theory of multiple universes. He is currently a professor at Stanford University . Linde said : Space is inflation in many areas , leading to similar areas , and these , in turn , produce more areas , and so on to infinity. In the universe , which are separated from each other . They are not aware of each other’s existence . But they represent parts of the same physical universe.

The fact that our universe is not only based on data received from the Planck space telescope. The use of data , scientists have created the most accurate map of the microwave background , the so-called background radiation of the relic, which has been maintained since the beginning of our universe. They also found that the universe has a lot of dark corners represented by some large holes and gaps.

Theoretical physicist Laura Mersini – Houghton of the University of North Carolina with his colleagues argue, there are anomalies of the microwave background due to the fact that our universe is influenced by other nearby existing universes . And the holes and gaps are a direct result of the attacks against us by neighboring universes.

Therefore, there are plenty of places or other universes where our souls could migrate after death , according to the theory of neo – biocentrism . But is there a soul? Is there any scientific theory of consciousness that could accommodate such a statement ? According to Dr. Stuart Hameroff , a near death happens when the quantum information that lives in the nervous system leaves the body and is dissipated in the universe experience. Contrary to materialist accounts of consciousness , Dr. Hameroff offers an alternative explanation of consciousness that may perhaps appeal to both the rational scientific mind and personal insights.

Consciousness resides , according to Stuart and British physicist Sir Roger Penrose, microtubules in brain cells , which are the primary sites of quantum processing. On death, this information is released from your body , which means your consciousness goes with it. They have argued that our experience of consciousness is the result of quantum gravity effects in these microtubules , a theory called orchestrated objective reduction ( Orch – O) .

Consciousness, or at least proto – consciousness is theorized by them as a fundamental property of the universe, present even in the beginning of the universe during the Big Bang. ” In one such scheme proto- conscious experience is a basic property of physical reality accessible to a quantum process associated with brain activity . ”

Our souls are in fact constructed from the very fabric of the universe – and may have existed since the beginning of time . Our brains are just receivers and amplifiers for proto – awareness that is intrinsic to the structure of spacetime . So is there really a part of your consciousness that is not material and will live after the death of his physical body?

Dr. Hameroff said Science Channel documentary through the Wormhole . ” Say the heart stops beating , the blood stops flowing , microtubules lose their quantum state Quantum information microtubules is not destroyed , not may be destroyed, only distributes and dissipates to the universe at large. ” Robert Lanza add here that not only exists in the universe , there is perhaps another universe.

If the patient is resuscitated , revived , this quantum information can return to microtubules and the patient says “I had a near-death experience ” ‘

He adds: ” If you are not revived , and the patient dies , it is possible that this quantum information can exist outside the body, perhaps indefinitely , as a soul . ”

This explanation of quantum consciousness explains things like near-death experiences , astral projection , out of body experiences , reincarnation and even without appeal to religious ideology. The energy of your consciousness potentially recycled back into a different body, at some point, and in the mean time that exists outside the physical body at some other level of reality, and possibly in another universe .

Microscopic Bubbles Baffle Scientists

Microscopic Bubbles Baffle Ocean Scientists:

Mysterious Microscopic Bubbles Baffle Ocean Scientists

Mysterious Microscopic Bubbles Baffle Ocean Scientists

The most abundant photosynthetic organism in the world throws countless small sacs in the oceans , which could be having a dramatic impact on marine ecosystems , according to a new study. These sprouts contain microbial proteins and genetic material , which may influence the growth of other marine microbes and even protect against viruses.

The oceans are the largest ecosystem in the world , and unicellular cyanobacteria organisms that obtain their energy through photosynthesis – are the keystone group . A type of cyanobacteria, Prochlorococcus is the most abundant in the world, numbering in the billions of billions of billions photosynthetic organism . These tiny organisms account for about 10 % of all photosynthesis on Earth, forming the base of the food chain and provides the atmosphere with oxygen . Researchers at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT ) , led by biological oceanographer Sallie Chisholm found that cyanobacteria may play an even greater role in the ecosystem than previously thought .

The team reports that Chisholm cyanobacteria secrete small vesicles, membrane-enclosed sacs into the surrounding ocean. Chisholm first observed vesicles in 2008 when one of his graduate students , Anne Thompson , spotted small buds on the surface of Prochlorococcus under an electron microscope. ” The vesicles , which called them” Chisholm recalled, ” like little bubbles. ” A couple of years later, MIT postdoctoral Steven Biller proposed that these vesicles may be vesicles, based on their resemblance to the vesicles of other species. This was confirmed by isolation of the vesicles and further examination under the electron microscope. The vesicles were at least as abundant as the bacteria themselves .

These initial observations were made in bacteria grown in the laboratory and may not necessarily apply to wild microbes. Therefore, Biller tactics , collecting hundreds of liters of seawater off the coast of Massachusetts, and from the Sargasso Sea near Bermuda. Vesicles found in these samples as those of laboratory cultures . Analysis of the contents of the blebs revealed a variety of biological molecules : proteins, DNA , and RNA . DNA sequencing revealed that it was a variety of microbes , not only Prochlorococcus . Therefore, these vesicles appear to be a general feature of the marine microorganisms .

Because they are so abundant , and because they contain various biomolecules, these vesicles are a major source of organic carbon , nitrogen, and phosphorus in which other organisms can feed . Indeed , Chisholm and colleagues showed that no other photosynthetic bacteria, can grow using vesicles of cyanobacteria as their sole carbon source . ” That’s kind of neat ,” says Marvin Whiteley , a microbiologist at the University of Texas, Austin, who was not involved in the study. “What really changes the way we think about marine ecosystems and how they are created and how nutrients are provided . ”

Another important consequence of this finding is that , in the words of Biller, “It’s kind of asking a lot more questions than it answers . ” Perhaps the new bigger question is why the bacteria produce these vesicles in the first place . The authors offer some hypotheses . First, cyanobacteria live benefit from other types of bacteria . Vesicles provide food for other bacteria encourage this living arrangement . Moreover, because the vesicles containing the DNA, can facilitate the exchange of genetic material between individual bacteria , a process known as horizontal gene transfer . The last and perhaps most interesting , the vesicles may help defend against viruses. Chisholm group showed that when known to attack virus cyanobacteria are mixed with vesicles , the virus will bind to vesicles and to infect them appear as if the vesicles were living cells. Therefore, the authors speculate that these vesicles may function as cellular decoys , distracting the virus from infecting cyanobacteria .

Whatever their purpose , these vesicles show that we still have much to learn about life in the oceans. ” We did not set out to study this,” Chisholm says, “but Prochlorococcus is always putting things in front of us to study.