New gene with a key role in obesity

New gene with a key role in obesity:

New gene with a key role in obesity:

New gene with a key role in obesity:

The researchers observed that blocking the expression of TRIP- Br2 gene protects mice against obesity and insulin resistance . The study shows that the gene modulates fat storage by regulating energy expenditure and lipolysis , the process that transforms fat into lipids for energy in the body. If gene expression is blocked , the mice increase in lipolysis and energy expenditure , thereby reducing their obesity.

Obesity is the result of an alteration in the processes regulating the absorption of food and energy production . This altered balance tips toward excessive fat storage. According to researchers, the understanding of the regulation of the factors controlling the storage, movement and the use of an excess of energy in fat cells ( adipocytes ) can lead to the development of therapies for obesity and related conditions such as type 2 diabetes.

In the words of Cristina Mallol , a researcher at the Autonomous University of Barcelona and co – author of the study : ” The protection of mice lacking expression of TRIP- Br2 gene and its selective elevation of visceral fat in humans point to the path future gene therapy to counteract obesity, insulin resistance and excess lipids in the blood “ .

Microbes living in the skin

Microbes living in the skin of patients with primary immunodeficiencies:

Microbes living in the skin of patients with primary immunodeficiencies:

Microbes living in the skin of patients with primary immunodeficiencies:

Our skin is home to millions of microorganisms that cause disease, however, if our immune system influences these microbial communities to prevent the disease is unknown . In a study published online in Genome Research, researchers have explored the microbes that live on the skin of patients with primary immunodeficiency diseases of the skin eczema .

The human body contains many microbes , some of which are necessary for healthy bodily functions including digestion . Others, like some microbes living on our skin , may be pathogenic . Previous studies investigated how these microbes educate and shape the human immune system. It is not known , however , if the immune system influences the types of microbes that live on the skin and thus potentially prevent disease . ” In addition to questions about how microbes affect human host, there is interest in understanding how the human host affects the microbes that cause our skin to your home,” said Heidi Kong National Cancer Institute ( NCI ) and co -senior author of the study.

To study this, the authors recruited patients with reduced as a result of rare genetic defects immune function. Despite the diversity of the disease -causing mutations in patients, all patients share a skin condition eczema type . Scientists identified the microbes of the skin of patients by sequencing of microbial DNA from skin smears . Immunocompromised patients had types of bacteria and fungi in the skin that are not found in healthy individuals , suggesting the patients skin was more permissive for the growth of microbes . “Our findings suggest that the human body, including your immune system , limitations and potentially selects which bacteria and fungi can inhabit the skin,” Kong said.

Interestingly , the sites of the skin especially prone to the disease showed significant differences in microbial diversity , or the number of different types of microbes present in immundeficient patients. The skin on your elbow , for example, had fewer types of microbes that found in healthy individuals, while the skin behind the ear had more types of microbes. The authors suggest that an imbalance in the microbial diversity in a given site may contribute to the disease. Also, ” communities of bacteria and fungi on the skin of patients with primary immunodeficiency are more likely to change over time ,” said co -author Julie Segre of the National Institute of Human Genome Research (NHGRI ) .

Immunocompromised patients generally had similar microbial communities much more throughout the body, which are often different in healthy individuals . The authors suggest correcting diversity of microbes on the skin , not only the orientation pathogens, may help in the treatment of disease.

Although individuals in this study have rare genetic disorders , this research could have implications for patients with temporary problems in immune function , such as cancer patients and transplant recipients , and may inform the use of preventive antibiotics administered to these patients .

Four emotions vs. Six

Humans use four basic emotions rather than six:
Emotions

Emotions

A commonly held belief , first proposed by Dr. Paul Ekman, posits that there are six basic emotions that are universally recognized and easily interpreted through specific facial expressions, regardless of language or culture. These are : happiness , sadness , fear , anger , surprise and disgust.

New research published in the journal Current Biology by scientists at the University of Glasgow has challenged this view and suggested that there are only four basic emotions .

His conclusion was reached by studying the variety of different muscles in the face – or units of action as researchers refer to them – involved in signaling in different emotions, and the period during which every muscle is activated .

This is the first study to examine objectively the ” temporal dynamics ” of facial expressions , which are possible using a single platform Cara generative grammar developed at the University of Glasgow.

The team from the Institute of Neuroscience and Psychology assertion that while the signals of facial expression of happiness and sadness are clearly distinct over time , fear and surprise share a common signal – eyes open – early dynamics signaling .

Similarly, anger and disgust share wrinkled nose. Are these early signs that could represent the most basic warning signs . Later in the dynamic signaling , facial expressions convey signals that distinguish the six ‘classic’ facial expressions of emotion.

Lead researcher Dr Rachael Jack said : “Our results are consistent with the predictions of evolution, where the signals are designed by the biological and social evolutionary pressures to optimize its function .

” First, the signs of early danger give the best benefits to others , allowing faster escape Secondly, the physiological benefits for expresser – . Wrinkled nose prevents the inspiration of potentially harmful particles, while much of eye consumption increases the useful visual information for escape – is better when facial movements are made early.

” What our research shows is that not all facial muscles appear simultaneously during facial expressions, but rather develop over time supporting a biologically basic hierarchical information socially – . Specific time ”

In developing his research team used special techniques and developed at the University of Glasgow for the synthesis of all facial expressions software.

The generative grammar Face – developed by Professor Philippe Schyns , Dr. Oliver Garrod and Dr. Hui Yu – uses cameras to capture a three-dimensional image of the faces of the people specially trained to activate the 42 individual facial muscles independently .

From this a computer can generate specific or random facial expressions in a 3D model based on the activation of different units or groups of units actions to imitate all facial expressions.

By asking volunteers to observe the realistic model as it took several expressions – thus providing a true experience of four dimensions – and state that emotion is being expressed researchers are able to see which units specific action observers associated with emotions individuals.

It was through this method found that the signs of fear / surprise and anger / disgust mingled in the early stage of the transmission and only became clearer later when other action units were activated .

Dr. Jack said : “Our research casts doubt on the idea that human communication consists of six basic emotion categories, psychologically irreducible Instead it is suggested that there are four basic expressions of emotion. .

“We showed that facial expression signals ” core ” are perceptually segmented over time and follow a developmental hierarchy of signals over time – of biologically rooted basic to the most complex signals specific social cues.

“Over time , and that humans migrated around the world , socio-ecological diversity probably previously common specialized facial expressions, alter the number , variety and type of signals across cultures. ”

The researchers intend to develop their study observing facial expressions of different cultures , including East Asian populations to those who have already been compiled interpret some of the six different classic emotions – putting more emphasis on the signals from the eyes mouth movements compared to Westerners.

Brain processes images in 13 milliseconds

Brain processes images in 13 milliseconds:

Brain processes images in 13 milliseconds

Brain processes images in 13 milliseconds

 

MIT scientists have discovered that the human brain is capable of processing images of about 10 times faster than previous studies have shown.

In the new study , participants were shown a series of six to 12 photos of concept , such as ” picnic ” and the experiment was carried out several times with the images shown in varying amounts of time ” smiling couple . ” – First during 80 milliseconds , then 3, 27 and 13 . The researchers found that subjects were able to remember more specific photos when photos are shown in increments of 13 milliseconds.

The results , published in the journal Attention, Perception and Psychophysics , scientists explain the process called ” feedforward process ” by which information flows in one direction from the eye to the visual processing centers in the brain . The study shows evidence that feedforward processing is enough for the brain to recognize the concepts , the researchers said that while previous studies suggested that more complex processes are needed to identify the image.

Thai ex-civil servant

Bangkok:

 Thai ex-civil servant found very rich


Thai ex-civil servant found very rich

A Thai court has ordered more than $1.4m in assets seized from a former top civil servant whose wealth was revealed when burglars robbed his house.

The Civil Court said on Friday that former Transport Ministry Permanent Secretary Supoj Saplom could not prove his wealth was honestly earned. It said his civil servant’s salary from 1978 until 2002 could not account for it.

Supoj had reported to police that $156 000 was missing after a burglary at his home in 2011. But when the burglars were caught, they confessed to stealing $570 000 in cash and gold. Prosecutors found Supoj had about $2m in assets, $1.4m presumed ill-gotten by the court.

Supoj claimed that part of his fortune was earned before he joined the government and some belonged to relatives.

Black Phones to combat Police Software

Things that can be undeleted from your phone using police software:

Things that can be undeleted from your phone using police software

Things that can be undeleted from your phone using police software

Software like Oxygen Forensic and AccessData allows anyone to recover data from phones and other mobile devices even after it has been deleted or undergone a factory reset.

Almost all of all handsets sold to recycling companies are reused, not recycled in the “conventional” context, making phone recycling a prime target for hackers using forensic data retrieval software. Here are the more concerning of the things that can be recovered from your phone using FDR software:

1. Images and videos

Even if you take a quick photo and delete it immediately after, along with all your other pictures and videos, it can be recovered.

What most people don’t know is that when you delete information off your phone or undergo a factory reset, the data itself is not being deleted, it still remains in areas of the flash chip called solid state memory. Factory resets only destroy the paths to the data. This obviously allows forensic software users to re-establish their own pathways and retrieve the data.

A YouGov poll showed 26 percent of people (in the UK, at least) believe that manually deleting a piece of data completely removes it from the device, whereas 37 percent believe a factory reset is enough (neither will fully remove personal data).

A full removal of personal data is not possible using a device’s in-built factory reset or by re-flashing the operating system.

2. Bank details on apps

Despite banks doing their best to make smartphone banking as secure as possible, as long as a code or pin is required to access a customer’s details, they are susceptible to forensic recovery.

The flat information that can be retrieved from the solid state memory also includes passwords and cryptograms that have been used within the phone’s apps.

This actually applies to any app that has ever been uploaded on a mobile device, which is a worrying thought for people who have sold their old phones or unwanted upgrades. To make matters worse, recent EU data security regulations have pushed legislation making it the responsibly of the handset owner to wipe all their data, not the recyclers or phone buyers. Despite this possibly being one of the most absurd legislations in history, until it is revisited (which should be March 2014), mobile phone consumers have been forced into a subjugate position.

However, if you happen to live outside of Europe, you aren’t affected by this legislation.

3. SMS and email messages (sent and received)

This could apply to all messages involving SMS, email, Whatsapp, WeChat, instant messaging, Skype, and MMS logs that have ever been used on the phone.

The level of detail a hacker could undelete from your phone depends solely on the level of patience the hacker has. Forensic retrieval and the replacement of data pathways can be a laborious process because there are so many areas within the phone where the solid state memory can hide the flat data.

4. Web browsing history

Over the years, more people have been using their phones to search Google and browse the Internet. To accommodate that, smartphone technology has become more sophisticated. The downside to this is that the more complex and intrinsic something becomes, the more it can be exploited.

5. Geo-positioning and location sensors

If having access to your private photos, messages, and passwords wasn’t enough, another concerning bit of information a potential hacker can get their hands on is the smartphone’s position sensor history.

So whenever a smartphone user has gone to lunch with their friends and tagged them all in a Facebook status update, all this logged information can be salvaged.

This could lead to a hacker being able to discover a former phone owner’s home address or hangout spots.

A military-standard data wipe is the only known way to properly erase not just the data paths but the data itself. There are many different terms for this kind of wipe, but it essentially works in a similar way to forensic retrieval software itself: it reforms the deleted pathways, but instead of recovering the data, it deletes it.

Companies like Cashinyourgadgets, Bozowi Sell My Mobile, and Money4urmobile offer this level of permanent data removal.  In the U.S., cell recycling companies like Cellularreturns, Celltradein, and Gadgetgobbler offer military-standard wipes.

Costs for this service vary significantly, but the price is usually about 5 percent to 15 percent of the phone’s recycle value. So if your handset could be recycled for $150, the cost to have it properly wiped would be somewhere around $15. However, the more aware the world is of forensic data retrieval software, the quicker companies like these will begin offering such a service for free (because they will have no choice).

A word of warning: If you are going to use an external company to perform a permanent wipe on your phone, always make sure they provide you with both a tracking number and a certificate of destruction. Companies like these will almost always arrange for a delivery service to pick up your phone from your home and drop it off afterwards, so a tracking number is important to monitor the process and make sure you are getting the full data removal. A certificate of destruction is useful because it means the company is accepting full responsibility for the data, so if your phone still manages to get hacked after the service, they will be legally accountable.

There have been some studies suggesting that multiple factory resets could also deleted the flat data due to it slowly wearing down the solid state memory, but the results were inconclusive.

One piece of good news: It’s likely this threat won’t be a permanent issue. The major mobile device developers will eventually find ways to bypass it altogether. Already we’re hearing about the upcoming Blackphone, which is apparently NSA-proof and allegedly impossible to hack. However, until it’s released, we won’t know for sure.

It’s unlikely forensic software will ever be outlawed, and even if developers fully bypass the threats it poses, another more advanced incarnation will be conjured up (the police still need to recover data, remember). What’s important is that mobile phone users are aware of the threat and begin to pressure electrical recyclers to do everything they can to prevent it.

Nanoparticles could block HIV transmission

Silver nanoparticles could block HIV transmission:

 

silver nanoparticles could block HIV transmission

silver nanoparticles could block HIV transmission

 

 

According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1.1 million people in the U.S. are infected with the human immunodeficiency virus. But new research has detailed the creation of a cream that has proven effective against the transmission of infection in laboratory tests .

Previous research at the University of Texas, in collaboration with the University of Monterrey in Mexico , found that silver nanoparticles may be able to stop the transmission of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) .

Now, the research team used the results to create a vaginal cream that can block HIV transmission .

Lara Humberto Villegas , University of Monterrey and co -author of the study, says that HIV infects immune cells of its host, a protein called GP120 helps virus binding to cells.

He explains that the silver nanoparticles bind to the protein and block GP120 , which means that HIV can not infect immune cells.

Commenting on the creation , Lara Villegas says:

” Normally, the medicine used against the act of virus within the cell to prevent replication . This is a very different case , since the nanoparticle goes directly against HIV and no longer allows entry to the cell. ”

It is said that the cream has been tested in the laboratory using human tissue samples of cervical mucous membrane. It was found to effectively block HIV transmission .

Lara Villegas notes that the cream works in less than 1 minute after application and protects against transmission of the virus for up to 72 hours.

The researchers say that although the cream is for vaginal use , sexual partner also be protected against the virus.

The use of silver nanoparticles, the researchers created a vaginal cream that has proven effective in blocking HIV transmission .

However, Lara Villegas stressed that although there have been no negative side effects of silver nanoparticles so far, the team will conduct more research to be sure.

The next steps will be to test the cream on modified mice with human immune cells, before moving to clinical trials in humans.

The researchers note that the cream may also help protect against other sexually transmitted diseases such as human pappilloma virus ( HPV) which silver nanoparticles should be able to block this virus with the same process used to block infection HIV .

The team is also in the process of creating a diagnostic kit . The kit will do blood tests to predict whether a seropositive individual will respond to antiretroviral therapy.

They hope the kit will provide results within hours , and help doctors to ensure that their patients receive the best treatment for HIV.