AnarchyAnarchism is generally defined as the political philosophy which holds the state to be immoral or alternatively as opposing authority in the conduct of human relations. Proponents of anarchism (known as “anarchists”) advocate stateless societies based on non-hierarchicalvoluntary associations. In the United States, the term “anarchy” typically is meant to refer to a society which lacks publicly recognized government or violently enforced political authority. When used in this sense, anarchy may or may not be intended to imply political disorder or lawlessness within a society. Outside of the US, and by most individuals that self-identify as anarchists, it implies a system of governance, mostly theoretical at a nation-state level although there are a few successful historical examples., that goes to lengths to avoid the use of coercion, violence, force and authority, while still producing a productive and desirable society. Although social movements and philosophies with anarchic qualities predate anarchism, anarchism as a specific political philosophy began in 1840 with the publication of What Is Property? . In the following decades it spread from Western Europe to various regions, countries, and continents, impacting local social movements. The success of the 1917 October Revolution in Russia initiated a decline in prominence for anarchism in the mid-20th century roughly coinciding with the time period referred to by historians as The short twentieth century. Since the late 1980s, anarchism has begun a gradual return to the world stage.