Quantum systems can have hot and cold temperatures at once

quantum chip Hot and cold at the same time

quantum chip Hot and cold at the same time

Quantum systems can have several temperatures at once.

Temperature is a very useful physical quantity. It allows us to make a simple statistical statement about the energy of particles swirling around on complicated paths without having to know the specific details of the system. Scientists from the Vienna University of Technology together with colleagues from Heidelberg University have now investigated, how quantum particles reach such a state where statistical statements are possible. The result is surprising: a cloud of atoms can have several temperatures at once. This is an important step towards a deeper understanding of large quantum systems and their exotic properties.

 Statistics Helps where Things get Complicated

The air around us consists of countless molecules, moving around randomly. It would be utterly impossible to track them all and to describe all their trajectories. But for many purposes, this is not necessary. Properties of the gas can be found which describe the collective behaviour of all the molecules, such as the air pressure or the temperature, which results from the particles’ energy. On a hot summer’s day, the molecules move at about 430 meters per second, in winter, it is a bit less.

This statistical view (which was developed by the Viennese physicist Ludwig Boltzmann) has proved to be extremely successful and describes many different physical systems, from pots of boiling water to phase transitions in liquid crystals in LCD-displays. However, in spite of huge efforts, open questions have remained, especially with regard to quantum systems. How the well-known laws of statistical physics emerge from many small quantum parts of a system remains one of the big open questions in physics.

Hot and Cold at the Same Time

Scientists at the Vienna University of Technology have now succeeded in studying the behaviour of a quantum physical multi-particle system in order to understand the emergence of statistical properties. The team of Professor Jörg Schmiedmayer used a special kind of microchip to catch a cloud of several thousand atoms and cool them close to absolute zero at -273°C, where their quantum properties become visible.

The experiment showed remarkable results: When the external conditions on the chip were changed abruptly, the quantum gas could take on different temperatures at once. It can be hot and cold at the same time. The number of temperatures depends on how exactly the scientists manipulate the gas. “With our microchip we can control the complex quantum systems very well and measure their behaviour,” says Tim Langen, leading author of the paper published in “Science.” There had already been theoretical calculations predicting this effect, but it has never been possible to observe it and to produce it in a controlled environment.

The experiment helps scientists to understand the fundamental laws of quantum physics and their relationship with the statistical laws of thermodynamics. This is relevant for many different quantum systems, maybe even for technological applications. Finally, the results shed some light on the way our classical macroscopic world emerges from the strange world of tiny quantum objects.

Source:  sciencedaily.com

Professor decodes Voynich’s manuscript

600 year old mystery manuscript decoded by University of Bedfordshire professor:

voynich

voynich

AN award-winning professor from the University has followed in the footsteps of Indiana Jones by cracking the code of a 600 year old manuscript, deemed as ‘the most mysterious’ document in the world.

Stephen Bax, Professor of Applied Linguistics, has just become the first professional linguist to crack the code of the Voynich manuscript using an analytical approach.

The world-renowned manuscript is full of illustrations of exotic plants, stars, and mysterious human figures, as well as many pages written in an unknown text.

Up until now the 15th century cryptic work has baffled scholars, cryptographers and codebreakers who have failed to read a single letter of the script or any word of the text.

Over time it has attained an infamous reputation, even featuring in the latest hit computer game Assassin’s Creed, as well as in the Indiana Jones novels, when Indiana decoded the Voynich and used it to find the ‘Philosopher’s Stone’.

However in reality no one has come close to revealing the Voynich’s true messages.

Many grand theories have been proposed. Some suggest it was the work of Leonardo da Vinci as a boy, or secret Cathars, or the lost tribe of Israel, or most recently Aztecs … some have even proclaimed it was done by aliens!

Professor Bax however has begun to unlock the mystery meanings of the Voynich manuscript using his wide knowledge of mediaeval manuscripts and his familiarity with Semitic languages such as Arabic. Using careful linguistic analysis he is working on the script letter by letter.

“I hit on the idea of identifying proper names in the text, following historic approaches which successfully deciphered Egyptian hieroglyphs and other mystery scripts, and I then used those names to work out part of the script,” explained Professor Bax.

“The manuscript has a lot of illustrations of stars and plants. I was able to identify some of these, with their names, by looking at mediaeval herbal manuscripts in Arabic and other languages, and I then made a start on a decoding, with some exciting results.”

Among the words he has identified is the term for Taurus, alongside a picture of seven stars which seem to be the Pleiades, and also the word KANTAIRON alongside a picture of the plant Centaury, a known mediaeval herb, as well as a number of other plants.

Although Professor Bax’s decoding is still only partial, it has generated a lot of excitement in the world of codebreaking and linguistics because it could prove a crucial breakthrough for an eventual full decipherment.

“My aim in reporting on my findings at this stage is to encourage other linguists to work with me to decode the whole script using the same approach, though it still won’t be easy. That way we can finally understand what the mysterious authors were trying to tell us,” he added.

“But already my research shows conclusively that the manuscript is not a hoax, as some have claimed, and is probably a treatise on nature, perhaps in a Near Eastern or Asian language.”

 

Source:  beds.ac.uk

New chip incorporating ultra-low consumption

New chip consumes 50 million times less than a conventional light bulb:

New chip consumes 50 million times less than a conventional light bulb:

New chip consumes 50 million times less than a conventional light bulb:

 

 

Low consumption means the device can be powered by reducing energy collected from the environment ( light, vibrations , temperature variations , etc. . ) Thus, energy independence is achieved , as no batteries are required for operation .

The research , authored by Antonio López- Martín and Iñigo Cenoz -Villanueva , was awarded the prize for the best presentation at the 7th International Conference on Sensor Technology (ICTS ) . This is a major international forum in the field of sensor technology and applications; 188 works from 38 countries were submitted in this latest edition.

The winning paper was the result of the thesis project of telecommunication engineering student Cenoz – Iñigo Villanueva. His project was supervised by Antonio Lopez – Martin, Professor, Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering and Deputy Director of the School of Industrial Engineering and Telecommunications .

Wireless sensor networks are the main application of the developed device. These networks are composed of two main elements: the sensor nodes that detect the parameters of the individual or the surroundings (temperature , humidity , heart rate , presence, etc. ) , and the actuators that trigger actions ( to switch devices on or outside , through the generation of neurological stimuli, etc. . ) Sensors and actuators communicate with each other and with other networks such as the Internet via radio waves without wires. It is the technology that in recent years it has boomed because of its many applications .

This research group Communications and Microwave Signal NUP / UPNA ‘ s was recognized again in 2012 to mark the 12th Talgo Award for Technological Innovation . On that occasion the winning project was aimed at providing an ecosystem of railroad with intelligence through wireless sensor networks for ultra low power consumption whenever possible driven by the available environmental energy in railway wagons themselves.

Police analyze Facebook to catch you

Researchers are interested in analyzing Facebook and social media to see how you score on a Self-Report Psychopathy scale:
The researchers are interested in analyzing what people write on Facebook or in other social media, since our unconscious mind also holds sway over what we write. By analyzing stories written by students from Cornell and the University of British Columbia, and looking at how the text people generate using social media relates to scores on the Self-Report Psychopathy scale.

The researchers are interested in analyzing what people write on Facebook or in other social media. By analyzing stories written by students and looking at how the text people generate using social media relates to scores on the Self-Report Psychopathy scale.

Psychopaths appear to view the world and others instrumentally, as theirs for the taking, the team, which included Stephen Porter from the University of British Columbia, wrote. As they expected, the psychopaths’ language contained more words known as subordinating conjunctions. These words, including “because” and “so that,” are associated with cause-and-effect statements. “This pattern suggested that psychopaths were more likely to view the crime as the logical outcome of a plan (something that ‘had’ to be done to achieve a goal),” the authors write. While most of us respond to higher-level needs, such as family, religion or spirituality, and self-esteem, psychopaths remain occupied with those needs associated with a more basic existence. Their analysis revealed that psychopaths used about twice as many words related to basic physiological needs and self-preservation, including eating, drinking and monetary resources than the nonpsychopaths, they write. Jeffrey Hancock, the lead researcher and an associate professor in communications at Cornell University said, “the nonpsychopathic murderers talked more about spirituality and religion and family, reflecting what nonpsychopathic people would think about when they just committed a murder”. Police and researchers are interested in analyzing what people write on Facebook or in other social media, since our unconscious mind also holds sway over what we write. By analyzing stories written by students from Cornell and the University of British Columbia, and looking at how the text people generate using social media relates to scores on the Self-Report Psychopathy scale. Unlike the checklist, which is based on an extensive review of the case file and an interview, the self report is completed by the person in question. This sort of tool could be very useful for law enforcement investigations, such as in the case of the Long Island serial killer, who is being sought for the murders of at least four prostitutes and possibly others, since this killer used the online classified site Craigslist to contact victims, according to Hancock. Text analysis software could be used to conduct a “first pass,” focusing the work of human investigators, he said. “A lot of time analysts tell you they feel they are drinking from a fire hose.” Knowing a suspect is a psychopath can affect how law enforcement conducts investigations and interrogations, Hancock said.