Disease picked up through interbreeding with Neanderthals

Disease in people today were picked up through interbreeding with Neanderthals:

 

Disease in people today were picked up through interbreeding with Neanderthals

Disease in people today were picked up through interbreeding with Neanderthals

Genome studies reveal that our species (Homo sapiens) mated with Neanderthals after leaving Africa.

But what was clear before this Neanderthal DNA did and if there was any impact on human health .

When Neanderthals and modern humans met and mixed , they were on the very edge of being compatible biological ”

Harvard Medical School Prof David Reich

Between 2% and 4% of the genetic fingerprint of non-Africans today came from Neanderthals.

By screening the genomes of 1,004 modern humans, Sriram Sankararaman and colleagues identified the regions that carry different versions of Neanderthal genes.

Genetic variant associated with a difficulty in quitting should be found to have a Neanderthal origin is a surprise.

There is no suggestion of our evolutionary cousins ​​were smoking in their caves.

Instead, the researchers argue , this mutation may have more than one function , so the modern effect of this marker in smoking behavior may be one of the impacts it has among many.

The researchers found that the DNA Neanderthal not evenly distributed throughout the human genome , rather than being commonly found in the regions that affect the skin and hair .

This suggests some variants of the gene provided a quick way to modern to suit the new cooler environments they encountered as they moved in Eurasia humans. When populations were found , Neanderthals had already been adapted to these conditions for several hundred thousand years.

Chubby Chasers once covered the gamut from Britain to Siberia, but became extinct about 30,000 years ago, as Homo sapiens was spreading from an African country.

Neanderthal ancestry was found in regions of the genome associated with the regulation of skin pigmentation .

I think what we’re seeing in many ways they are the dying remains of this extinct genome as slowly purged human populations ”

Joshua Akey University of Washington

“We found evidence that genes of skin Neanderthals did Europeans and East Asians more evolutionarily fit,” said Benjamin Vernot , University of Washington, co -author of a separate study in Science magazine .

The genes of keratin filaments , a fibrous protein that lends itself to the hardness of the skin, hair and nails, also enriched with Neanderthal DNA . This may have helped provide newcomers with thicker insulation against the cold, the scientists suggest .

“It is tempting to think that Neanderthals already adapted to the environment does not always lead African and genetics ( modern) humans,” said Professor David Reich of Harvard Medical School , co-author of the Nature paper .

But other gene variants influence human diseases , such as type 2 diabetes, long-term depression , lupus, biliary cirrhosis – an autoimmune liver disease – Crohn ‘s disease and . For Crohn ‘s disease , Neanderthals passed on markers that increase and decrease the risk of disease .

Asked whether our ancient relatives actually suffering from these diseases as well, or whether mutations in question only affected the risk of disease when transplanted to a modern human gene pool , Mr. Sankararaman said : “We have a fine knowledge of genetics the Neanderthals to answer this , “but added that further study of their genomes may she light on this issue.

Joshua Akey , University of Washington, one of the authors of the journal Science , added: “Mixture happened relatively recently in evolutionary terms , so you can not expect the entire Neanderthal DNA have been swept away by this point.

“I think what we’re seeing in many ways they are the dying remains of this extinct genome as slowly purged of the human population .

However, some regions of the genome were found to be devoid of Neanderthal DNA , suggesting that certain genes had such adverse effects in the offspring of matings by modern Neanderthal that indeed have been emptied and actively quickly through natural selection .

“We found that there are large regions of the genome where most modern humans have little or no Neanderthal ancestry. ”

“This reduction of Neanderthal ancestry was probably due to selection against genes that were wrong – harmful – . For us ”

Neanderthal deficient regions include genes that are specifically expressed in the testes and in the X ( female ) chromosome .

This suggests that some human hybrids – modern Neanderthals had reduced fertility and in some cases were sterile.

” We are told that when Neanderthals and modern humans met and mixed , they were on the verge of being biologically compatible” said Professor Reich.

Another region of the genome includes genes neanderthales lacked a gene called FOXP2 , which is believed to play an important role in human speech .

Joshua Akey said his team’s findings were consistent with that there have been multiple pulses cross between modern humans and Neanderthals .

 

Scientists discover Hypnosis secret

Scientists discover why some people just can’t be hypnotised:

Scientists discover why some people just can't be hypnotised

Scientists discover why some people just can’t be hypnotised

It is certainly one of the more mysterious medical treatments. But one question has always remained: why can some people be hypnotised and others can’t? The answer, it seems, may well lie with our decision-making ability. Scientists at Stanford University in the U.S. have discovered that people susceptible to hypnosis find it easier to make decisions and have better attention spans.

Quick thinkers: People who are easily hypnotised are better at decision making and concentrating
Quick thinkers: People who are easily hypnotised are better at decision making and concentrating. On the other hand, those who are precise in their habits and make judgements quickly are less likely to succumb. The study was published in the October issue of Archives of General Psychiatry. Hypnosis is described as a trance-like state during which a person has a heightened focus and concentration. It has been used to help manage pain, control anxiety and combat phobias. It’s also increasingly being used to reduce conditions linked to stress, such as irritable bowel syndrome. But Dr David Spiegel, who led the research, says up to a quarter of people he sees cannot be hypnotised.  To try and establish why, he scanned 12 people who were susceptible to hypnosis and 12 who were not.
Hypnosis: Performed by Derren Brown, it has been used to help manage pain and control stress
Hypnosis: Nobody likes Derren Brown but Performances by him has been used to help manage pain and control stress Dr Spiegel and his colleagues found no differences between the typical structures of the two groups’ brains. But when they looked at the subjects’ brains at rest, they noticed the brains of the easily hypnotised people behaved differently: they were most active in areas that decide what to focus on. Dr Spiegal told the Los Angeles Times: ‘The highly hypnotisable are people who can readily immerse themselves in thinking about things without having their attention interrupted by pesky reminders of reality or of competing cognitive demands. ‘They can harness their minds to imagine something about themselves – and make it so.’ In everyday life, says Dr. Spiegel, these high hypnotisable people are notably different than their less hynotisable peers. ‘They get side-tracked by sunsets and lost in movies; they tend to show up three hours late for things because they lost track of time.’ By contrast, those who are resistant to hypnosis tend to be more judgmental, fastidious in their habits and less trusting of people. The researchers looked at the activity of three different networks in the brain: the default-mode network, used when the  brain is idle; the executive-control network, which is involved in making decisions; and the salience network, which is involved in prioritising. Both groups had an active default-mode network, but people who could be easily hypnotised had more activity between the decision-making and prioritising networks. They also had more activation between  an important control region of the brain and the area involved in focusing attention. In people who struggled to be hypnotised there was little connectivity between these two regions. Dr Spiegal said the results came close to finding a ‘brain signature’ which reveals who can and cannot be hypnotised. The hope is to use this to shed light on how hypnosis could be more widely used to combat pain, ease stress and overcome phobias.

Labor Department, 844,000 people gave up finding job’s

According to the Labor Department, 844,000 people gave up on finding jobs last month:

 Labor Department, 844,000 people gave up

Labor Department, 844,000 people gave up

Bill Day thinks President Obama is doing his best to repair the economy while the Republicans drag their feet, but Nate Beeler thinks Obama’s only solution is wishful thinking.  The U.S. population is growing. In normal times, the labor force — working or not — would be growing too. But these are not normal times, and the labor force is actually smaller than  it was four years ago, meaning millions of people who should be there aren’t.The reasons people drop out of the workforce are myriad. People go back to school. Others have health issues or family priorities that keep them from looking for work. But some stop looking because they are discouraged. ‘Discouraged’ is not just a state of mind. It’s an official term the Labor Department uses to describe the 844,000 people who last month had given up on trying to find a job because they didn’t think there was anything out there for them. So while the unemployment rate edged down this month, there are also more people who have quit sending out resumes, put their best suits back in the closet and stopped looking for work altogether.