Our Milky Way is connected to a vast network of galaxies

Milky Way connected to a vast network of galaxies

Milky Way connected to a vast network of galaxies

The Milky Way is part of a much vaster galactic network than previously thought. The galaxy drifts along in a stream of galaxies on the outskirts of a newly identified collection of galaxy clusters, a supercluster named Laniakea. This supercluster — whose name means “heaven immeasurable” in Hawaiian — holds the mass of 100 million billion suns within a region that spans about 520 million light-years.

Astrophysicist R. Brent Tully of the University of Hawaii in Honolulu and colleagues sifted through data describing the positions and velocities of over 8,000 galaxies to get a fresh look at the Milky Way’s place in space. After accounting for the motion caused by the expansion of the universe, the team created a three-dimensional view of how gravity molds the galaxy’s cosmic neighborhood.

The new map, published in the Sept. 4 Nature, reveals Laniakea’s boundaries and weblike framework. The Milky Way lies along one of the lines of that web, in a tributary feeding one of many galactic rivers. Those streams converge in a gravitational valley roughly 200 million light-years away near two massive galaxy clusters: Norma and Centaurus. Their combined gravity appears to be drawing in other galaxies and clusters within Laniakea, including the Milky Way.

Watch Laniakea Supercluster to see how the Milky Way fits into this complex network of galaxies.


Source:  w.sciencenews.org

Space Station Commander Opens Up About His UFO Sighting

International Space Station Commander Opens Up About His UFO Sighting In Space:


Leroy Chiao,

Leroy Chiao,


Leroy Chiao, commander of the International Space Station in 2005 recently opened up about his UFO sighting from space. They were 230 miles above the Earth, and traveling at a speed of 17,000 miles per hour when Chiao spotted a UFO (Unidentified Flying Object).

“I saw some lights that seemed to be in a line and it was almost like an upside-down check mark, and I saw them fly by and thought it was awfully strange. It wasn’t just one, but a line of them strung out along the South American coast” (1)

“I’m skeptical of claims that we’ve been visited by aliens from another planet or other dimensions, but I don’t rule it out 100 percent. I have an open mind and I do believe there’s other life in the universe.”

A growing amount of evidence has emerged, especially within the past few years that has more people asking questions. For example, dozens of governments around the world have recently released previously classified UFO documents. Documents detail how governments have special departments to monitor the UFO phenomenon and obtain information. One example are the UFO files released by the United Kingdom in June 2013.

Documents also reveal that UFOs are constantly tracked on ground radar, air radar, accompanied by visual conformation by military pilots who are scrambled to take a closer look.

Agencies like the NSA have done the same, you can view examples here , here and here. It’s safe to assume that more sensitive documents remain classified, especially with the recent disclosure of the black budget and special access programs by Edward Snowden.

Apart from official documentation proving the reality of UFOs (performing maneuvers that defy our known laws of physics like starting and stopping on a dime), we’ve had incredible statements made by hundreds of very high ranking political and military personnel. Paul Heyller, Canada’s former Minister of National Defence recently said that there are “at least four known alien species that have been visiting Earth for thousands of years.”

This is a very minuscule amount of evidence that I’ve presented regarding the UFO issue. The UFO phenomenon cannot really be denied anymore, for anybody who has looked into this subject,the evidence can be quite overwhelming. Coupled with this evidence are the experiences people have all over the world involving UFOs, as well as purported extraterrestrial beings. It’s definitely an interesting subject and one that is gaining some well deserved attention as we move through 2014 and beyond. This is thanks to the efforts of researchers, whistle-blowers and more.

Source:  collective-evolution.com

Simulation Universe is a hologram

A team of physicists has provided some of the clearest evidence yet that our Universe could be just one big projection:

Simulations back up theory that Universe is a hologram

Simulations back up theory that Universe is a hologram


In 1997, theoretical physicist Juan Maldacena proposed1 that an audacious model of the Universe in which gravity arises from infinitesimally thin, vibrating strings could be reinterpreted in terms of well-established physics. The mathematically intricate world of strings, which exist in nine dimensions of space plus one of time, would be merely a hologram: the real action would play out in a simpler, flatter cosmos where there is no gravity.

Maldacena’s idea thrilled physicists because it offered a way to put the popular but still unproven theory of strings on solid footing — and because it solved apparent inconsistencies between quantum physics and Einstein’s theory of gravity. It provided physicists with a mathematical Rosetta stone, a ‘duality’, that allowed them to translate back and forth between the two languages, and solve problems in one model that seemed intractable in the other and vice versa. But although the validity of Maldacena’s ideas has pretty much been taken for granted ever since, a rigorous proof has been elusive.

In two papers posted on the arXiv repository, Yoshifumi Hyakutake of Ibaraki University in Japan and his colleagues now provide, if not an actual proof, at least compelling evidence that Maldacena’s conjecture is true.

In one paper2, Hyakutake computes the internal energy of a black hole, the position of its event horizon (the boundary between the black hole and the rest of the Universe), its entropy and other properties based on the predictions of string theory as well as the effects of so-called virtual particles that continuously pop into and out of existence. In the other3, he and his collaborators calculate the internal energy of the corresponding lower-dimensional cosmos with no gravity. The two computer calculations match.

“It seems to be a correct computation,” says Maldacena, who is now at the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton, New Jersey and who did not contribute to the team’s work.

The findings “are an interesting way to test many ideas in quantum gravity and string theory”, Maldacena adds. The two papers, he notes, are the culmination of a series of articles contributed by the Japanese team over the past few years. “The whole sequence of papers is very nice because it tests the dual [nature of the universes] in regimes where there are no analytic tests.”

“They have numerically confirmed, perhaps for the first time, something we were fairly sure had to be true, but was still a conjecture — namely that the thermodynamics of certain black holes can be reproduced from a lower-dimensional universe,” says Leonard Susskind, a theoretical physicist at Stanford University in California who was among the first theoreticians to explore the idea of holographic universes.

Neither of the model universes explored by the Japanese team resembles our own, Maldacena notes. The cosmos with a black hole has ten dimensions, with eight of them forming an eight-dimensional sphere. The lower-dimensional, gravity-free one has but a single dimension, and its menagerie of quantum particles resembles a group of idealized springs, or harmonic oscillators, attached to one another.

Nevertheless, says Maldacena, the numerical proof that these two seemingly disparate worlds are actually identical gives hope that the gravitational properties of our Universe can one day be explained by a simpler cosmos purely in terms of quantum theory.