Humans Immortal By 2040

 

Humans Immortal By 2040

Humans Immortal By 2040

 

In 30 or 40 years, we’ll have microscopic machines traveling through our bodies, repairing damaged cells and organs, effectively wiping out diseases. The nanotechnology will also be used to back up our memories and personalities.

In an interview with Computerworld , author and futurist Ray Kurzweil said that anyone alive come 2040 or 2050 could be close to immortal. The quickening advance of nanotechnology means that the human condition will shift into more of a collaboration of man and machine , as nanobots flow through human blood streams and eventually even replace biological blood, he added.

That may sound like something out of a sci-fi movie, but Kurzweil, a member of the Inventor’s Hall of Fame and a recipient of the National Medal of Technology, says that research well underway today is leading to a time when a combination of nanotechnology and biotechnology will wipe out cancer, Alzheimer’s disease , obesity and diabetes .

It’ll also be a time when humans will augment their natural cognitive powers and add years to their lives, Kurzweil said.

“It’s radical life extension,” Kurzweil said . “The full realization of nanobots will basically eliminate biological disease and aging. I think we’ll see widespread use in 20 years of [nanotech] devices that perform certain functions for us. In 30 or 40 years, we will overcome disease and aging. The nanobots will scout out organs and cells that need repairs and simply fix them. It will lead to profound extensions of our health and longevity.”

Of course, people will still be struck by lightning or hit by a bus, but much more trauma will be repairable. If nanobots swim in, or even replace, biological blood, then wounds could be healed almost instantly. Limbs could be regrown. Backed up memories and personalities could be accessed after a head trauma.

Today, researchers at MIT already are using nanoparticles to deliver killer genes that battle late-stage cancer. The university reported just last month the nano-based treatment killed ovarian cancer, which is considered to be one of the most deadly cancers, in mice.

And earlier this year, scientists at the University of London reported using nanotechnology to blast cancer cells in mice with “tumor busting” genes, giving new hope to patients with inoperable tumors. So far, tests have shown that the new technique leaves healthy cells undamaged.

With this kind of work going on now, Kurzweil says that by 2024 we’ll be adding a year to our life expectancy with every year that passes. “The sense of time will be running in and not running out,” he added. “Within 15 years, we will reverse this loss of remaining life expectancy. We will be adding more time than is going by.”

And in 35 to 40 years, we basically will be immortal, according to the man who wrote The Age of Spiritual Machines and The Singularity is Near: When Humans Transcend Biology .

Kurzweil also maintains that adding microscopic machines to our bodies won’t make us any less human than we are today or were 500 years ago.

“The definition of human is that we are the species that goes beyond our limitations and changes who we are,” he said. “If that wasn’t the case, you and I wouldn’t be around because at one point life expectancy was 23. We’ve extended ourselves in many ways. This is an extension of who we are. Ever since we picked up a stick to reach a higher branch, we’ve extended who we are through tools. It’s the nature of human beings to change who we are.”

But that doesn’t mean there aren’t parts of this future that don’t worry him. With nanotechnology so advanced that it can travel through our bodies and affect great change on them, come dangers as well as benefits.

The nanobots, he explained, will be self-replicating and engineers will have to harness and contain that replication.

“You could have some self-replicating nanobot that could create copies of itself… and ultimately, within 90 replications, it could devour the body it’s in or all humans if it becomes a non-biological plague,” said Kurzweil. “Technology is not a utopia. It’s a double-edged sword and always has been since we first had fire.”

 

Source:  cio.com

Organs grown inside animals for the first time

Lab mouse

Researchers have had success growing organs in controlled lab environments, but repeating that feat inside a complex, messy animal body? That’s more than a little tricky. However, researchers at the University of Edinburgh have managed that daunting feat for the first time. They’ve grown thymus glands inside lab mice by “reprogramming” the genes in tissue-regenerating cells and partnering those with support cells. The team didn’t have to use scaffolds or other “cheats” to trigger the growth; it just injected the cells and waited. There weren’t even any obvious limitations. The organs were full size (unlike the baby-like results from some experiments), and they were just as efficient at producing virus-fighting T-cells as the real deal.

The catch, as you might have guessed, is the scale. Mice aren’t nearly as challenging to work on as humans, and the thymus is one of the simplest organs in any animal. It wouldn’t be nearly as easy to give you a new heart or lung. If the University keeps making progress, though, it could shake up the transplant process. Patients wouldn’t have to wait for donors whose tissues are good matches, and people who’ve lost much of their immune system (such as bone marrow transplant recipients) could rebuild faster. You won’t get on-demand organs any time soon, but the concept isn’t as far-fetched as it once was.

 

Source:  w.engadget.com

Scientist’s Grow Liquid Crystal

Researchers Grow Liquid Crystal:

Researchers Grow Liquid Crystal

Researchers Grow Liquid Crystal

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

In previous studies , the team produced patterns “defects” votes disruptions repeating patterns found in liquid crystals, in grids and rings nanometer scale. A three-dimensional matrix in the form of a flower : The new study a more complex pattern of an even simpler template is added.

And because the petals of this ” bloom ” are made transparent liquid crystal and radiates outward in a circle from a center point , the assembly resembles a compound eye and therefore can be used as a lens .

The team consists of Randall Kamien , a professor in the School of Arts and the Department of Physical Sciences and Astronomy ; Kathleen Stebe , the School of Engineering and Associate Dean of Applied Sciences for research and professor of Chemical and Bio molecular Engineering and Shu Yang , professor of Engineering departments Materials Science and Engineering and Chemical and Bio molecular Engineering . Members of their laboratories also contributed to the new study, including lead author Daniel Beller , Mohamed Gharbi and Apiradee Honglawan .

Ongoing work of researchers with liquid crystals is an example of a growing field of nanotechnology known as “directed assembly” , in which scientists and engineers aim to manufacture structures on smaller scales without that each component individually manipulated . Rather, the starting conditions are set precisely defined and allow the physics and chemistry that govern these components do the rest.

The starting conditions in the experiments of previous investigators were templates consist of small stalls . In one of his studies, which showed that changing the size , shape and spacing of these posts would result in corresponding changes in the patterns of defects on the surface of the liquid crystal resting on top of them . In another experiment , the researchers showed that they could make a ” hula hoop ” defects around the individual poles , which then act as a second model for a ring of surface defects .In his latest work , the researchers used a much simpler signal.

“Before these liquid crystals were growing into something like a trellis, a template with precisely ordered features,” Kamien said. ” Here , we are planting a seed. ”

The seeds , in this case , silica beads were – essentially polished sand grains . Planted on top of a pool of crystal flower-like patterns of liquid defects grow around each bead . The key difference between the template in this experiment and those in the earlier work of the research team was the shape of the interface between the template and the liquid crystal.

In their experiment that generated defects grid patterns , these patterns are derived from the signals generated by microposts templates . Domains elastic energy originated in the tops and edges of these flat positions and traveled to the liquid crystal layer , culminating in defects. Using a cord instead of a message , as the researchers did in their last experiment , made ​​so that the interface is no longer flat .

“Not just the interface at an angle is an angle that keeps changing , ” Kamien said. ” The way in which the liquid crystal responds to it is that makes these petal shapes in smaller sizes and smaller, trying to match the angle of the pearl until everything is flat. ”

The surface tension in the bead also makes it so that these petals are arranged in one of the convexly levels. And because the liquid crystal can interact with light , the whole can function as a lens, focusing the light to a point below the bead.

“It’s like the compound eye of an insect, or mirrors in larger telescopes,” Kamien said. ” As we learn more about these systems , we will be able to do this type of lenses to order and use them to direct the light . ”

This type of directed assembly could be useful in the manufacture of optical switches and other applications .

Researchers Discover Bacteria Produces Pure Gold

Researchers Discover Bacteria That Produces Pure Gold:

Researchers Discover Bacteria That Produces Pure Gold

Researchers Discover Bacteria That Produces Pure Gold

Gold was produced by a bacteria that, according to researchers at Michigan State University, can survive in extreme toxic environments and create 24-karat gold nuggets. Pure gold. Maybe this critter can save us all from the global economic crisis? Of course not—but at least it can make Kazem Kashefi—assistant professor of microbiology and molecular genetics—and Adam Brown—associate professor of electronic art and intermedia—a bit rich, if only for the show they have put together. Kashefi and Brown are the ones who have created this compact laboratory that uses the bacteria Cupriavidus metallidurans to turn gold chlroride—a toxic chemical liquid you can find in nature—into 99.9% pure gold. Accoding to Kashefi, they are doing “microbial alchemy” by “something that has no value into a solid [in fact, it the toxic material they use does cost money. Less than gold, but still plenty], precious metal that’s valuable.” The bacteria is incredibly resistant to this toxic element. In fact, it’s 25 times stronger than previously thought. The researchers’ compact factory—which they named The Great Work of the Metal Lover—holds the bacteria as they feed it the gold chloride. In about a week, the bacteria does its job, processing all that junk into the precious metal—a process they believe happens regularly in nature. So yes, basically, Cupriavidus metallidurans can eat toxins and poop out gold nuggets. It seems that medieval alchemists were looking for the Philosopher’s Stone—the magic element that could turn lead to gold—in the wrong place. It’s not a mineral. It’s a bug.

 

New spin on Single-Atom quantum computer

Researchers create single-atom silicon-based quantum computer:

Researchers create single-atom silicon-based quantum computer

Researchers create single-atom silicon-based quantum computer

A team of Australian engineers is claiming it has made the first working quantum bit (qubit) fashioned out of a single phosphorous atom, embedded on a conventional silicon chip. This breakthrough stems all the way back to 1998, when Bruce Kane — then a University of New South Wales (UNSW) professor — published a research paper on the possibility of phosphorous atoms, suspended in ultra-pure silicon, being used as qubits. For 14 years, UNSW has been working on the approach — and today, it has finally turned theory into practice. To create this quantum computer chip, the Australian engineers created a silicon transistor so small that “electrons have to travel along it one after the other.” A single phosphorous atom is then implanted into the silicon substrate, right next to the transistor. The transistor only allows electricity to flow through it if one electron from the phosphorus atom jumps to an “island” in the middle of the transistor. This is the key point: by controlling the phosphorus’s electrons, the engineers can control the flow of electricity across the transistor.

An artist's rendition of the single phosphorous atom (red circle) surrounded by its electron cloud

 

A team of Australian engineers is claiming it has made the first working quantum bit (qubit) fashioned out of a single phosphorous atom, embedded on a conventional silicon chip. This breakthrough stems all the way back to 1998, when Bruce Kane — then a University of New South Wales (UNSW) professor — published a research paper on the possibility of phosphorous atoms, suspended in ultra-pure silicon, being used as qubits. For 14 years, UNSW has been working on the approach — and today, it has finally turned theory into practice. To create this quantum computer chip, the Australian engineers created a silicon transistor so small that “electrons have to travel along it one after the other.” A single phosphorous atom is then implanted into the silicon substrate, right next to the transistor. The transistor only allows electricity to flow through it if one electron from the phosphorus atom jumps to an “island” in the middle of the transistor. This is the key point: by controlling the phosphorus’s electrons, the engineers can control the flow of electricity across the transistor. At this point, I would strongly recommend that you watch this excellent video that walks you through UNSW’s landmark discovery — but if you can’t watch it, just carry on reading. To control the phosphorus atom’s electrons, you must change their spin, which in this case is done by a small burst of microwave radiation. In essence, when the phosphorus atom is in its base state, the transistor is off; it has a value of 0 — but when a small burst of radiation is applied, the electrons change orientation, one of them pops into the transistor, it turns on; it has a value of 1. For more on electron spin and how it might impact computing. Now, we’ve written about quantum computers before — the University of Southern California has created a quantum computer inside a diamond, for example — but the key breakthrough here is that UNSW’s quantum transistor has been fashioned using conventional silicon processes. Rather than beating its own path, UNSW is effectively riding on the back of 60 years and trillions of dollars of silicon-based electronics R&D, which makes this a much more exciting prospect than usual. It is now quite reasonable to believe that there will be readily available, commercial quantum computers in the next few years.