New gene with a key role in obesity

New gene with a key role in obesity:

New gene with a key role in obesity:

New gene with a key role in obesity:

The researchers observed that blocking the expression of TRIP- Br2 gene protects mice against obesity and insulin resistance . The study shows that the gene modulates fat storage by regulating energy expenditure and lipolysis , the process that transforms fat into lipids for energy in the body. If gene expression is blocked , the mice increase in lipolysis and energy expenditure , thereby reducing their obesity.

Obesity is the result of an alteration in the processes regulating the absorption of food and energy production . This altered balance tips toward excessive fat storage. According to researchers, the understanding of the regulation of the factors controlling the storage, movement and the use of an excess of energy in fat cells ( adipocytes ) can lead to the development of therapies for obesity and related conditions such as type 2 diabetes.

In the words of Cristina Mallol , a researcher at the Autonomous University of Barcelona and co – author of the study : ” The protection of mice lacking expression of TRIP- Br2 gene and its selective elevation of visceral fat in humans point to the path future gene therapy to counteract obesity, insulin resistance and excess lipids in the blood “ .

Women Are Obese Before Pregnancy

Nearly 1 in 4 Women Are Obese Before Pregnancy:

Pregnant-Woman

Pregnant-Woman

Nearly 1 in 4 women now are obese when they become pregnant, according to a new study that includes information from most of the United States.

Researchers analyzed birth certificates from 36 states and Washington D.C. in 2011, which listed how much the mother weighed before she became pregnant.

On average, 23.4 percent of mothers in these states were obese — meaning they had a body mass index (BMI) of 30 or greater — when they became pregnant, according to the report, from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

Utah had the lowest rate of obesity before pregnancy, at 18.0 percent, while South Carolina had the highest, at 28.6 percent.

Mothers were more likely to be obese if they were over age 20, compared with younger mothers. Black and Hispanic women were also more likely to be obese than white women, the report said.

Given the current high rate of obesity in the United States (nearly 36 percent of U.S. adults are obese), it’s not surprising that nearly 25 percent of mothers are obese, said Dr. Jill Rabin, chief of ambulatory care, obstetrics and gynecology at Long Island Jewish Medical Center in New Hyde Park, N.Y., who was not involved in the report. However, Rabin pointed out that the study did not include information from all U.S. states, so it is not representative of the whole population.

Still, “it’s important for women to normalize their body weight before they become pregnant,” to reduce pregnancy risks for themselves and their babies, Rabin said.

Being overweight or obese during pregnancy is linked with an increased risk of gestational diabetes, cesarean delivery and preeclampsia (high blood pressure) for the mother; as well as prematurity, stillbirth and excessive weight at birth for the fetus, according to the American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG).

Rabin said she recommends that women who are already obese when they become pregnant speak with their OB-GYN to make sure they gain the appropriate amount of weight for their health and their baby during pregnancy.

The Institute of Medicine recommends normal-weight women (BMI between 18.5 and 24.9) gain 25 to 35 pounds during pregnancy, and underweight women (BMI of less than 18.5) gain 28 to 40 pounds, but overweight woman (BMI between 25 and 29.9) gain 15 to 25 pounds, and obese women (BMI of 30 and over) gain 11 to 20 pounds.

Women who are overweight or obese during pregnancy should be offered nutrition counseling, and encouraged to follow an exercise program, ACOG says.

Nutrition and Health based on flimsiest evidence.

The Surprising Reason People Get Fat:

 

The Surprising Reason People Get Fat

The Surprising Reason People Get Fat

 

“I want to convince you that the conventional wisdom about weight gain is wrong,” declared Gary Taubes. The idea that eating too much and exercising too little is the culprit is, he said, “as obsolete as the belief that the sun rotates around the earth.” Thus began the most revolutionary presentation in the five-year history of the Nutrition and Health Conference, an annual three-day event co-sponsored by the Arizona Center for Integrative Medicine (founded by Dr. Weil in 1994). Held most recently in Phoenix, Arizona in April of 2008, it attracted some 500 health care professionals from around the world, and the packed house at Arizona Grand Resort made it clear that Taubes was a headliner. The writer, trained in applied physics at Harvard and aerospace engineering at Stanford, specializes in parsing hot science controversies in articles and books (such as 1993’s Bad Science: The Short Life and Weird Times of Cold Fusion). He is widely credited with kicking off the national low-carb diet trend with his July 2002 New York Times Magazine article, What If It’s All Been a Big, Fat Lie? In 2007, he published Good Calories, Bad Calories: Challenging the Conventional Wisdom on Diet, Weight Control and Disease, a book that led the New York Times to assert that “Gary Taubes is a brave and bold science journalist” who shows that “much of what is believed about nutrition and health is based on the flimsiest evidence.” Taubes’ message: political pressure and sloppy science over the last 50 years have skewed research to make it seem that dietary fat and cholesterol are the main causes of obesity and heart disease, but there is, in fact, little or no objective data to support that hypothesis. A more careful look (Taubes researched his book for five years, its 450 pages include 60 pages of footnotes) reveals that the real obesity-epidemic drivers are increased consumption of refined carbohydrates, mainly sugar and white flour. Further, as he stated in his conference presentation, obesity is not “a disorder of energy imbalance,” in which weak-willed people eat too much and exercise too little, but rather “a disorder of excess fat accumulation” in which the body, not the brain, is the primary culprit. Eating too much and exercising too little are side effects, not causes, of the active role of carbohydrate-driven hormones on the whole organism, including the brain. Much of Taubes’ presentation was devoted to illustrating the central role that glucose and insulin – both of which are products of carbohydrate metabolism – play in fat deposition. A chemical compound derived from glucose, he said, turns fatty acids – the “burnable” kind of fat – into triglycerides, the “storable” form of fat. Consequently, “Anything that works to transport glucose into fat cells works to deposit fat.” And what transports glucose into fat cells? Insulin. “When insulin is secreted or chronically elevated, fat accumulates in fat tissue,” he said. “When insulin levels drop, fat escapes from fat tissue and the fat depots shrink.” Bottom line: “Carbohydrate is driving insulin is driving fat deposition.” So when it comes to accumulating fat, carbohydrates are indeed “bad calories,” as they are the only ones that boost insulin and make fat accumulation possible. Highly refined carbohydrates are even worse, as they lead to insulin surges and subsequent drops, which creates a hunger for more – hunger so voracious that, for most people, it can’t be overcome by willpower. Refined carbohydrates, Taubes contends in his book, are literally addictive. So what’s the scientific weight-loss solution? Taubes asserted that since the fewer carbohydrates we eat, the leaner we will be, our diets should emphasize meat, fish, fowl, cheese, butter, eggs and non-starchy vegetables. Conversely, we should reduce or, preferably, eliminate bread and other baked goods, potatoes, yams, rice, pasta, cereal grains, corn, sugar (both sucrose and high fructose corn syrup) ice cream, candy, soft drinks, fruit juices, bananas and other tropical fruits, and beer. Excluding carbohydrates from the diet, he said, derails the insulin peak/dip roller coaster, so one is never voraciously hungry, making weight loss and healthy-weight maintenance easy. “When you eat this way, the fat just melts off,” he said after his speech – and Taubes is indeed a lean fellow. While Dr. Weil agrees with most of Taubes’ research, he draws the line at the writer’s specific dietary recommendations: “I don’t agree that the way to respond to this information is to eat a diet that is mostly meat and no carbohydrate.” He said instead that people should eat animal protein two to three times per week – mostly as fatty, cold-water fish to reap the benefits of omega-3 fatty acids – and otherwise eat carbohydrate foods that rank low on the glycemic load scale. “All carbohydrates are not the same, nor do all people react to them in the same way,” he said. “That needs to be taken into account.” But overall, Dr. Weil, like the other assembled health-care professionals, came away impressed. “I invited Gary to speak, and I’ve been recommending the book to my medical colleagues and students. It’s important to get this information out to the medical community, because a lot of the ways that we try to prevent and treat obesity are based on assumptions that have no scientific evidence.”