Much of the water on Earth and elsewhere in the solar system likely predates the birth of the sun, a new study reports.
The finding suggests that water is commonly incorporated into newly forming planets throughout the Milky Way galaxy and beyond, researchers said — good news for anyone hoping that Earth isn’t the only world to host life.
“The implications of our study are that interstellar water-ice remarkably survived the incredibly violent process of stellar birth to then be incorporated into planetary bodies,” study lead author Ilse Cleeves, an astronomy Ph.D. student at the University of Michigan, told Space.com via email. [Theories on the Origin of Life]
“If our sun’s formation was typical, interstellar ices, including water, likely survive and are a common ingredient during the formation of all extrasolar systems,” Cleeves added. “This is particularly exciting given the number of confirmed extrasolar planetary systems to date — that they, too, had access to abundant, life-fostering water during their formation.”
Astronomers have discovered nearly 2,000 exoplanets so far, and many billions likely lurk undetected in the depths of space. On average, every Milky Way star is thought to host at least one planet.
Water, water everywhere
Our solar system abounds with water. Oceans of it slosh about not only on Earth’s surface but also beneath the icy shells of Jupiter’s moon Europa and the Saturn satellite Enceladus. And water ice is found on Earth’s moon, on comets, at the Martian poles and even inside shadowed craters on Mercury, the planet closest to the sun.
Cleeves and her colleagues wanted to know where all this water came from.
Halloween as it is celebrated these days is but a pale representation of its rich and multicultural history. It is not, as some would call it, a celebration of the Devil or of Hell or of the Damned, but rather a blending of the celebrations marking the end of the growing season, a heralding of the coming of the winter months and folk traditions that told of the day when the veil between the living and the dead, ever a transparent, gossamer veil at that, would lift and ghosts and ghouls would walk among the living. From those many traditions, coming to us from the Celts, the Roman rituals and even Catholic tradition, we get the stirrings of what would eventually become Halloween. Back in the old days, or once upon a time, in the tradition of fairy tales, there were the Celtic people and their Druid priests. The Druids were believed to have the ability, among other skills, to commune with the dead. Their powers, it was rumored, were much more powerful on the day of Samhain (pronounced sow-en), which was the last day of the year in the Celtic calendar. But, before believing that the Halloween celebration came directly from Samhain, a day mistakenly attributed directly to the Wiccans rather than to the Celts, you must understand that it is a blend of Hallowmas, a celebration of Catholic origins, as well as the Roman festival called Feralia. On the day of Samhain, the Celtic people would all extinguish their home’s hearth fire. They would gather in front of a blessed bonfire and would sing, dance and listen to the stories that were told during the celebration. At the end of the evening, each person would take some of the bonfire home to relight their heart fire in hopes of ensuring good fortune to their home and family for the coming year. It is said that if your hearth fire would not light from the sacred bonfire, misfortune, even death, would befall someone in the house that very year. By the 19th century, most of the religious aspects of the Halloween celebration had dwindled away and it was mostly a secular holiday, a gathering of community with only some of the remnants of the past clinging to it like the cobwebs of a haunted house. People would still dress up in costume, but less for the original reason of confusing the dead and more for just plain entertainment and fun. European immigrants brought many of their traditions and beliefs with them to the New World, even those that were sometimes frowned upon or scoffed at. Halloween itself was largely disallowed, even forbidden, but in Maryland, the tradition was not only allowed but encouraged. The people there held what they called “play parties” where they would take turns telling each other’s fortunes, dancing, singing and telling ghost stories. The children would dress in costumes and try to scare one another as well. The Irish immigrants came to the new world in great masses, fleeing from the Potato Famine that was starving them to death, and brought with them the Halloween tradition of going door to door looking for sweets and other treats.
The tradition of trick or treating is still a favorite among little children today.There are still many, especially among fundamentalist Christians, who believe that Halloween is nothing more than a celebration of paganism and witchcraft because of some of the traditions that are involved. It was thought that on Halloween night, a young woman could determine who her future spouse would be by staring into a mirror in a darkened room or by peeling an apple in one long strip and then casting the peel over her shoulder. Other traditions involved baking small coins and trinkets as well as a single, plain ring into a barm brack, a type of fruit cake that would be shared among the neighbors. If you got a trinket in your piece – that was your fate for the coming year, with the person who got the ring destined to wed.While the Catholic Church bears no ill will toward the Halloween traditions and the holiday itself, there are some Christian churches who say that it encourages witchcraft and may even lead to Satanism. These churches hold “Hell Houses” meant to scare children and young adults away from the traditions and to lead them back to the church. Some of these churches even hand out pamphlets and religious tracts on Halloween night to be found when the children go through their candy.
Halloween is an old holiday and it’s evolved from those first Druid & Celtic roots, to what’s celebrated today. In Canada and the US is where it’s most popular. Up to 65% of Americans decorate for Halloween and Christmas is the only holiday which is more popular. More candy is sold on Halloween than on any other holiday and every country which celebrates Halloween at all, does so in its own unique way.
Halloween in Austria
Just like at Christmas in North America with milk & cookies for Santa, Austrians have a tradition of leaving water, bread, and a lighted lamp on the table before going to bed on Halloween night. From long ago, the tradition held that these types of items would welcome any dead souls back to the land of the living. Austrians felt that Halloween was a night chock full of cosmic energy and this made the dead souls’ return for a night much easier.
Halloween in Canada
Irish and Scottish immigrants arrived in Canada during the 1800s. Festivities included trick or treating and parties, homes decorated with corn stalks and pumpkins, plus the carving of Jack O’Lanterns.
Halloween in Belgium
Belgian’s believe that a black cat crossing someone’s path is unlucky. If it goes on a ship or enters a home, then that’s also unlucky and Belgians light candles on Halloween to remember dead relatives.
Halloween in Czechoslovakia
Chairs are put by the fireside on Halloween and they are one per family member, plus one for each of their spirits.
Halloween in China
Halloween is known by Teng Chieh here. Water and food are placed in front of dead relatives’ photographs. Lanterns and bonfires are lit so that spirits can see the pathway back to earth. Buddhists make little boats from paper and these are burned when it gets dark and this honors the dead, plus spirits of pretas are released and can ascend into heaven. Pretas are people who died because they drowned or had an accident and their bodies weren’t able to be buried. If pretas roam amongst the living, the Chinese feel that it’s dangerous.
Halloween in England
English children used to carve beetroots like Jack O’Lanterns. They carried these “punkies” from door to door and sang, then asked for money. Turnip lanterns were placed on posts to protect the home form spirits roaming around on Halloween. Sometimes, stones, nuts and vegetables were tossed into a bonfire to scare away spirits and fortune telling was often read into the remains of the bonfire in the morning. The English people no longer celebrated Halloween when Martin Luther had his protestant reformation. Costumes and trick or treating have crossed back over the pond into England and the children there go out on Halloween. Most seniors in England don’t know what it’s all about.
Halloween in France
Until 1996, Halloween was thought of as an American holiday and the French do not celebrate it to honor the dearly departed.
Halloween in Hong Kong
Yue Lan is the name of the Halloween celebration in Hong Kong. Spirits supposedly roam freely for 24 hours and people there burned photos of money and fruit.
Halloween in Germany
Residents of Germany put their knives away on Halloween because returning spirits could be harmed.
Halloween in Japan
In Japan, the Obon festival is similar to Halloween. Food is prepared and red lanterns are hung all over. When lit candles are placed into the lanterns they are set adrift on rivers. Families light fires to show ancestors the path to their families and community dances are put on, and memorial stones are cleaned during the Obon Festival. The Japanese festival happens during August or July.
Halloween in Ireland
This is supposed to be the birthplace of Halloween. Bonfires are lit in the countryside and children dress in costumes then go trick or treating. Parties are given in neighborhoods and games are played, one of which is bobbing for apples. A type of fruitcake is eaten on Halloween and a treasure is buried inside for someone to find.
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