Link for Colon Cancer Discovered

Key Link Responsible for Colon Cancer Initiation and Metastasis discovered:

Key Link Responsible for Colon Cancer Initiation and Metastasis discovered

Key Link Responsible for Colon Cancer Initiation and Metastasis discovered

CXCR2- a key genetic culprit that is implicated in the tumor formation, growth and progression in a mouse model of colon cancer has been identified by scientists.
 Key Link Responsible for Colon Cancer Initiation and Metastasis discovered

“We have been trying for the past several years to understand the precise molecular links between inflammation and cancer, said DuBois. “We have demonstrated that CXCR2 mediates a critical step in the setup of the blood circulatory machinery that feeds tumor tissue. This provides an important new clue for the development of therapeutic targets to neutralize the effect of CXCR2 on colon cancer.”

The DuBois’ Laboratory for Inflammation and Cancer, which includes lead author Hiroshi Katoh, and colleagues Dingzhi Wang, Takiko Daikoku, Haiyan Sun, and Sudhansu K. Dey, published the results in the November 11 issue of Cancer Cell.

The results provide critical new clues toward the prevention of colorectal cancer, the second leading cause of cancer deaths in the U.S. Despite the availability of colonoscopy screening, the 5-year survival rate remains low, due to a large number patients presenting with advanced stages of the disease. Currently, there are no clinically available blood tests for the early detection of sporadic colon cancer.

Inflammation has long been associated with increasing one’s risk for colon cancer. For instance, more than 20 percent of patients with a form of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) develop colorectal cancer within 30 years of diagnosis. This colitis-associated cancer has a slow progression, but a very poor response to treatment and a high mortality rate.

Researchers have known that the broad mechanisms of cancer involve an interplay with the immune system response that includes: recruiting immune cells that influence the tumor microenvironment, escaping from host immunosurveillance and suppression, shifting of the host immune response, and tumor-associated angiogenesis to establish the blood supply.

For the study, the research team first “knocked-out” or removed the CXCR2 gene in mice, and found that the signs typically associated with inflammation were prevented. Furthermore, they demonstrated that CXCR2 dramatically suppressed colonic inflammation and the colitis associated tumor formation, growth and progression in mice.

CXCR2 decorates the outer part of immune cells called myeloid-derived suppressor cells, or MDSCs, that work to block the immune response of killer CD8+ T cells. In the knockout mice, without CXCR2 present, the MDSC cells could no longer migrate from the circulatory system to the colon, dodge the killer CD8+ T cell immune response, and feed the blood supply of the tumor environment. Furthermore, when they transplanted normal MDSC cells (with normal CXCR2) into the knockout mice, tumor formation was restored.

“These results provide the first genetic evidence that CXCR2 is required for recruitment of MDSCs into inflamed colonic mucosa and colitis-associated tumors,” said DuBois.

For DuBois, who has devoted his career to unraveling the inflammatory circuitry responsible for colon cancer, the results help connect the dots between the immune system, inflammation and tumor formation and metastasis.

DuBois’ team was the first to show that colorectal tumors contained high levels of the enzyme cyclo-oxygenase-2 (COX-2), a key step in the production of pro-inflammatory mediators such as prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). PGE2 triggers production of a CXCR2 molecule that fits into CXCR2 like a baseball into a glove’s pocket and activates it. CXCR2, like the pied piper, recruits MDSCs from the bloodstream to sites of inflammation, causing the colon cancer tumors to evade the immune killer CD8+ T immune response.

“Our findings reveal not only how MDSCs are recruited to local inflamed tissues and tumor microenvironment and how local MDSCs contribute to colorectal cancer progression, but now also provide a rationale for developing new therapeutic approaches to subvert chronic inflammation- and tumor-induced immunosuppression by using CXCR2 antagonists and neutralizing antibodies,” said DuBois.

Monsanto’s gobble’s up bee research company

Monsanto buys leading bee research firm after being implicated in bee colony collapse:

Monsanto buys leading bee research firm after being implicated in bee colony collapse

Monsanto buys leading bee research firm after being implicated in bee colony collapse

Amid all the controversy over genetically-modified (GM) crops and their pesticides and herbicides decimating bee populations all around the world, biotechnology behemoth Monsanto has decided to buy out one of the major international firms devoted to studying and protecting bees. According to a company announcement, Beeologics handed over the reins to Monsanto back on September 28, 2011, which means the gene-manipulating giant will now be able to control the flow of information and products coming from Beeologics for colony collapse disorder (CCD).

Since 2007, Beeologics has been studying CCD, as well as Israeli Acute Paralysis Virus (IAPV), for the purpose of coming up with intervention-based ways to mitigate these conditions. And based on the way the company describes both CCD and IAPV on its website, Beeologics has largely taken the approach that intervention, rather than prevention, is the key to solving the global bee crisis.

Now that Beeologics is owned and controlled by Monsanto, the company is sure to completely avoid dealing with the true causes of CCD and IAPV as they pertain to Monsanto’s crop technologies — GMOs and their chemical counterparts. So going into the future, it seems expected that Beeologics will come up with “scientific breakthroughs” that deny any link between CCD and GMO technologies, and instead blame mystery pathogens and other factors that require more chemicals to eliminate.

According to Anthony Gucciardi at Activist Post, Beeologics has also long had a cozy relationship with the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), which is convenient for Monsanto. The USDA, in fact, considers Beeologics to be one of the foremost bee research organizations in the world, as does the USDA’s Agricultural Research Service (ARS), the mainstream media and “leading entomologists” worldwide, according to the company.

Monsanto to use Beeologics’ ‘biological tools’ to develop more GMOs, crop chemicals

Beeologics’ acquisition announcement explains that Monsanto plans to incorporate all the biological research that Beeologics has conducted over the years into its own programs for developing more GMO systems. Monsanto has also seized control of a key product that is currently in the Beeologics development pipeline that supposedly “help[s] protect bee health.”

“Monsanto will use the base technology from Beeologics as a part of its continuing discovery and development pipeline,” says the announcement. “Biological products will continue to play an increasingly important role in supporting the sustainability of many agricultural systems.”

To translate, it appears as though Monsanto plans to use even more chemical inputs to supposedly solve the bee collapse problem, even though it is these very inputs that are largely the cause of the bee collapse problem. Several recent studies, after all, have definitively linked crop pesticides and herbicides, as well as high fructose corn syrup, to CCD.

The future looks bleak for bees, in other words, as Monsanto appears poised to slowly gobble up all the competing companies and organizations that threaten its own GMO products, while pretending to care about the dwindling bee populations. And unless drastic action is taken to stop Monsanto in its continued quest to dominate global agriculture, the food supply as we know it will soon be a thing of the past.