Super Humans by 2040

Nanotechnology continues to advance as experts expect, within 30 years it could give us ‘superhuman’ abilities:

 

nano-tech

nano-tech

 

We are already seeing the effects of Phase 1 of the Nanotechnology Revolution. It is supplying new super strong materials such as Graphene, it is providing next-gen waterproofing, super efficient water purification, and advanced battery power.

Phase 1 features the creation of Passive Nanostructures. Phase 2 features Active Nanostructures. These active structures are able to interact with their environment at the molecular level. It effectively allows us to reprogram nature. When we gain the ability to create these Active Nanostructures (phase 2 nanotechnology products), we will also have the power to create phase 3+4 nanotechnology products, which are already being designed: Three-dimensional heterogeneous molecular nanosystems, where each molecule in the nanosystem has a specific structure and plays a different role. Put simply, it will be technologically possible to create nanobots, that can be programmed to perform specific tasks.

Basic phase 1 products are already on the market. Phase 2 products are currently in the laboratory experimental stage; we can expect to see phase 2 products on the market within 20 years. Advanced phase 3+4 products are already in the computational experiment and modeling stages, and are expected to be on the market within 30 years. The invisible robotic devices that will be created, will be used to enhance our bodies, computers, transportation systems, and our power supplies.

Check out the video below for an introduction to the capabilities of nanotechnology

 

Nanomedicine represents the most important area of Active Nanostructure research. Huge successes have already been achieved; since 2010, two nanotechnology-based cancer drugs have passed regulatory scrutiny and are on the market—Doxil and Abraxane. But we won’t even begin to see the incredible potential of nanomedicine until the 2020′s.

 

Nanomedicine Cancer Treatment

The ability to detect cancerous cells in their early development stages relies on the ability to monitor slight changes in the molecular composition of cells. Nanotechnology will allow us to do this far more precisely than ever before. Nanodevices are small enough to infiltrate areas of the body which were once only accessible on the operating table.  In the 2020′s, early phase 3 versions of nanodevices will be used in the body to track signs of cancerous cells, allowing early diagnosis.

Early phase 3 treatments, already in development, will radically improve the results of radiotherapy and new targeted infrared treatment, increasing the damage caused to cancerous cells, and allowing less/zero damage to occur to healthy cells. The video below shows brilliantly how nanomedicine will soon be used the treat cancer.

 

Further advanced phase 4 treatments, will be nanodevices that can independently track and destroy cancerous cells. Sounds easy? Soon it will be.

 

Further medical applications

Phase 1 Nanotechnology is already being used as the basis for new, more effective targeted drug delivery systems, as well as a new generation of ‘smartdrugs’. Also in early development are phase 3 nanodevices that can build scaffolding to allow the regeneration of damaged nerves, which for example will cure alzheimer’s disease. We are often told about how dangerous the free radical toxins are in our bodies; they damage cells and speed up aging. Currently in development are ‘nanosponges’, phase 2 nanostructures which absorb these toxins and remove them from the bloodstream. At three different universities, they are researching phase 2 methods of stimulating  the production of cartilage in damaged joints through the use of specially designed nanofibres.

Above is a display of just a snippet of what nanomedicine will achieve. Nanomedicines will lead to the prevention of all illnesses, even aging.

 

How it will enhance us

Humanity+

Not only will nanotechnology merely provide us with healthy lives, they will enhance us. They will make us ‘Superhuman’. We will transcend our natural biology. Some call the process ‘transhumanism‘, others call it Humanity+ (H+ or h+). Bioengineering is also contributing to transhumanism.

The most exciting human enhancements will be the ones which will have an effect to slow down, and even halt and reverse the aging process. You can read more about anti-aging on our Immortality Information Page.

Enhanced cell oxygenation

Respirocyte (an artificial red blood cell)

New artificial red blood cells, called Respirocyte, will massively reduce our need to breath. This phase 4 technology has already been designed and is currently undergoing further research, while awaiting the creation of technology to allow its development. They are spherical in design, 8 times smaller than red blood cells, and will each hold 236 times more oxygen and carbon dioxide. They are described as elegantly simplistic in design. They are powered by glucose in the blood and are able to manage carbonic acidity via an onboard internal nanocomputer and a multitude of chemical/pressure sensors. When developed, 3D nanoscale fabrication will allow Respirocytes to be manufactured in practically unlimited supply very inexpensively.

Respirocyte Diagram

Once injected, Respirocyte will allow us to survive for 4 hours without breathing, or we could run at top speed for 15 minutes. It is possible that Respirocyte could be on the market within 20 years, but safety testing could see it take a further decade.

 

source: thatsreallypossible.com

Hominin DNA suggests link to mystery population

A dig at the Sima de los Huesos cave in Spain, the site of ancient hominin fossils.

Hominin DNA baffles experts  Analysis of oldest sequence from a human ancestor suggests link to mystery population.

Hominin DNA baffles experts
Analysis of oldest sequence from a human ancestor suggests link to mystery population.

 

Another ancient genome, another mystery. DNA gleaned from a 400,000-year-old femur from Spain has revealed an unexpected link between Europe’s hominin inhabitants of the time and a cryptic population, the Denisovans, who are known to have lived much more recently in southwestern Siberia.

The DNA, which represents the oldest hominin sequence yet published, has left researchers baffled because most of them believed that the bones would be more closely linked to Neanderthals than to Denisovans. “That’s not what I would have expected; that’s not what anyone would have expected,” says Chris Stringer, a palaeoanthropologist at London’s Natural History Museum who was not involved in sequencing the femur DNA.

The fossil was excavated in the 1990s from a deep cave in a well-studied site in northern Spain called Sima de los Huesos (‘pit of bones’). This femur and the remains of more than two dozen other hominins found at the site have previously been attributed either to early forms of Neanderthals, who lived in Europe until about 30,000 years ago, or to Homo heidelbergensis, a loosely defined hominin population that gave rise to Neanderthals in Europe and possibly humans in Africa.

But a closer link to Neanderthals than to Denisovans was not what was discovered by the team led by Svante Pääbo, a molecular geneticist at the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology in Leipzig, Germany.

The team sequenced most of the femur’s mitochondrial genome, which is made up of DNA from the cell’s energy-producing structures and passed down the maternal line. The resulting phylogenetic analysis ­— which shows branches in evolutionary history — placed the DNA closer to that of Denisovans than to Neanderthals or modern humans. “This really raises more questions than it answers,” Pääbo says.

The team’s finding, published online in Nature this week, does not necessarily mean that the Sima de los Huesos hominins are more closely related to the Denisovans, a population that lived thousands of kilometres away and hundreds of thousands of years later, than to nearby Neanderthals. This is because the mitochondrial genome tells the history of just an individual’s mother, and her mother, and so on.

 

Nuclear DNA, by contrast, contains material from both parents (and all of their ancestors) and typically provides a more accurate overview of a population’s history. But this was not available from the femur.

With that caveat in mind, researchers interested in human evolution are scrambling to explain the surprising link, and everyone seems to have their own ideas.

Pääbo notes that previously published full nuclear genomes of Neanderthals and Denisovans suggest that the two had a common ancestor that lived up to 700,000 years ago. He suggests that the Sima de los Huesos hominins could represent a founder population that once lived all over Eurasia and gave rise to the two groups. Both may have then carried the mitochondrial sequence seen in the caves. But these mitochondrial lineages go extinct whenever a female does not give birth to a daughter, so the Neanderthals could have simply lost that sequence while it lived on in Denisovan women.

“I’ve got my own twist on it,” says Stringer, who has previously argued that the Sima de los Huesos hominins are indeed early Neanderthals. He thinks that the newly decoded mitochondrial genome may have come from another distinct group of hominins. Not far from the caves, researchers have discovered hominin bones from about 800,000 years ago that have been attributed to an archaic hominin called Homo antecessor, thought to be a European descendant of Homo erectus. Stringer proposes that this species interbred with a population that was ancestral to both Denisovans and Sima de los Huesos hominins, introducing the newly decoded mitochondrial lineage to both populations .

This scenario, Stringer says, explains another oddity thrown up by the sequencing of ancient hominin DNA. As part of a widely discussed and soon-to-be-released analysis of high-quality Denisovan and Neanderthal nuclear genomes, Pääbo’s team suggests that Denisovans seem to have interbred with a mysterious hominin group.

The situation will become clearer if Pääbo’s team can eke nuclear DNA out of the bones from the Sima de los Huesos hominins, which his team hopes to achieve within a year or so.

Obtaining such sequences will not be simple, because nuclear DNA is present in bone at much lower levels than mitochondrial DNA. And even obtaining the partial mitochondrial genome was not easy: the team had to grind up almost two grams of bone and relied on various technical and computational methods to sequence the contaminated and damaged DNA and to arrange it into a genome. To make sure that they had identified genuine ancient sequences, they analysed only very short DNA strands that contained chemical modifications characteristic of ancient DNA.

Clive Finlayson, an archaeologist at the Gibraltar Museum, calls the latest paper “sobering and refreshing”, and says that too many ideas about human evolution have been derived from limited samples and preconceived ideas. “The genetics, to me, don’t lie,” he adds.

Even Pääbo admits that he was befuddled by his team’s latest discovery. “My hope is, of course, eventually we will not bring turmoil but clarity to this world,” he says.

300 Million Year Old Machinery Found In Russia

300 Million Year Old Machinery Found In Russia, Experts Say Aluminum Gear Not The Result Of Natural Forces:


Photo credit: en.wikipedia.org

The Voice of Russia and other Russian sources are reporting that a 300 million year old piece of aluminum machinery has been found in Vladivostok. Experts say a gear rail appears to be manufactured and not the result of natural forces. 

According to Yulia Zamanskaya, when a resident of Vladivostok was lighting the fire during a cold winter evening, he found a rail-shaped metal detail which was pressed in one of the pieces of coal that the man used to heat his home. Mesmerized by his discovery, the responsible citizen decided to seek help from the scientists of Primorye region. After the metal object was studied by the leading experts the man was shocked to learn about the assumed age of his discovery. The metal detail was supposedly 300 million years old and yet the scientists suggest that it was not created by nature but was rather manufactured by someone. The question of who might have made an aluminum gear in the dawn of time remains unanswered.

The find was very much like a toothed metal rail, created artificially. It was like parts are often used in microscopes, various technical and electronic devices says writer Natalia Ostrowski at KP UA Daily

Nowadays, finding a strange artifact in coal is a relatively frequent occurrence. The first discovery of this sort was made in 1851 when the workers in one of the Massachusetts mines extracted a zinc silver-incrusted vase from a block of unmined coal which dated all the way back to the Cambrian era which was approximately 500 million years ago. Sixty one years later, American scientists from Oklahoma discovered an iron pot which was pressed into a piece of coal aged 312 million years old. Then, in 1974, an aluminum assembly part of unknown origin was found in a sandstone quarry in Romania. Reminiscent of a hammer or a support leg of a spacecraft “Apollo”, the piece dated back to the Jurassic era and could not have been manufactured by a human. All of these discoveries not only puzzled the experts but also undermined the most fundamental doctrines of modern science.

The metal detail which was recently found by Vladivostok resident is yet another discovery which perplexed the scientists. The coal in which the metal object was pressed was delivered to Primorye from Chernogorodskiy mines of Khakasia region. Knowing that the coal deposits of this region date 300 million years back, Russian experts inferred that the metal detail found in these deposits must be an age-mate of the coal.

 

Photo by: Valery Brier.
 

Another question that interests Russian scientists is whether the aluminum alloy is of Earthly origin. It is known from the study of meteorites that there exists extra-terrestrial aluminum-26 which subsequently breaks down to magnesium-26. The presence of 2 percent of magnesium in the alloy might well point to the alien origin of the aluminum detail. It could also be evidence of some past, unknown civilization on Earth. Nonetheless, further testing is needed to confirm this hypothesis.

It is the first such finding in coal made in Russia, according to anomaly researcher and biologist Valery Brier, who took microscopic samples of the aluminum for testing.  Valery Brier performed X-ray diffraction analysis of the metal. It showed very pure aluminum with microimpurities of magnesium of only 2 – 4 percent.  Analysis was also conducted by Senior Fellow of the St. Petersburg Institute of Nuclear Physics Igor Okunev who confirmed the age of the material according to Natalia Ostrovsky

 The find is very much like a toothed metal rail, created artificially. It was like parts that are often used in microscopes, as well as various technical and electronic devices.

While exploring core samples (rock samples) that were raised from a 9-meter depth during the drilling of the seabed to support the bridge on a Russian island near Cape Nazimova,  strange metal alloys were discovered that were “preserved” in the prehistoric sandstone (age – 240 million years old).  The  pieces of special alloys had an unusual composition and were clearly not used in the drilling machinery. The alloys, said Brier, were artificial and constructed by intelligent beings.