Mosquito Invisibility Cloak

Mosquito ‘invisibility cloak’ discovered:

 

Mosquito 'invisibility cloak' discovered

Mosquito ‘invisibility cloak’ discovered

 

 

A naturally occurring substance found in human skin could yield a viable alternative to existing mosquito repellent, scientists say.

They say the chemical could help render people “invisible” to the insects.

At the American Chemical Society meeting, they revealed a group of compounds that could block mosquitoes’ ability to smell potential targets.

When a hand with these chemicals was placed in a mosquito filled enclosure, it was completely ignored.

The team says their work could help prevent the spread of deadly diseases.

Mosquitoes are among the most deadly disease-carrying creatures. They spread malaria, which in 2010 killed an estimated 660,000, according to the World Health Organization (WHO).

Ulrich Bernier of the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) who presented the work, said his team was exploring other options to Deet – a repellent which some do not favour.

These chemical compounds, including 1-methylpiperazine, were found to completely block their sense of smell.

The compounds could be added into many cosmetics and lotions, Dr Bernier added.

“If you put your hand in a cage of mosquitoes where we have released some of these inhibitors, almost all just sit on the back wall and don’t even recognize that the hand is in there. We call that anosmia or hyposmia, the inability to sense smells or a reduced ability to sense smells.”

Commenting on the work, James Logan of the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, said it was exciting to find out exactly which chemicals repelled mosquitoes.

“Although we already have good repellents on the market, there is still room for new active ingredients. The challenge that scientists face is improving upon the protection provided by existing repellents.

“If a new repellent can be developed which is more effective, longer lasting and affordable, it would be of great benefit to travellers and people living in disease endemic countries,” Dr Logan told BBC News.

But he said that it would take many years before a new product would make it to market.

‘Invisible’ Metamaterial

‘Invisible’ Material Can Now Fool Your Eyes

‘Invisible’ Material Can Now Fool Your Eyes

 

Tech journalists and military dreamers have talked about real-life invisibility cloaks for a while, and with good reason. With their specialized structures, so-called “metamaterials” can bend light around objects, making ‘em disappear.  Metamaterials warp things like infrared light or terahertz waves, neither of which we can see in the first place. In other words, we could still make out the “invisible” object with our own two eyes. Or at least, that used to be the case. Physicists at the University of St. Andrews appear to have made a breakthrough, however. They’ve created a metamaterial that really does work in the “optical range,” the scientists note in the New Journal of Physics. Not only did Andrea Di Falco and his research partners put together a metamaterial that could bend visible light. They built it in a way that could lead to larger-scale manufacturing — and real-world applications. Not just cloaks, but lenses made out of metamaterials that can zoom to the micron level, making it possible to spot germs, chemical agents and even DNA, using basically a pair of binoculars. “It clearly isn’t an invisibility cloak yet — but it’s the right step toward that,” Ortwin Hess, a physicist at Imperial College London, tells the BBC. “A huge step forward in very many ways.” Typically, metamaterials are built on top of rigid, brittle substrates like silicon. But that limits their size, and the wavelengths at which they work. Di Falco’s group instead made materials out of a superthin layer of flexible polymer, since “a ‘real’ cloaking device would have to be deformable and extend over a large area,” they write. If Di Falco and his partners can stack enough of these materials together — and show they can work while folded.

Halloween 2012

Halloween 2012

Halloween 2012

 

Halloween as it is celebrated these days is but a pale representation of its rich and multicultural history. It is not, as some would call it, a celebration of the Devil or of Hell or of the Damned, but rather a blending of the celebrations marking the end of the growing season, a heralding of the coming of the winter months and folk traditions that told of the day when the veil between the living and the dead, ever a transparent, gossamer veil at that, would lift and ghosts and ghouls would walk among the living. From those many traditions, coming to us from the Celts, the Roman rituals and even Catholic tradition, we get the stirrings of what would eventually become Halloween. Back in the old days, or once upon a time, in the tradition of fairy tales, there were the Celtic people and their Druid priests. The Druids were believed to have the ability, among other skills, to commune with the dead. Their powers, it was rumored, were much more powerful on the day of Samhain (pronounced sow-en), which was the last day of the year in the Celtic calendar. But, before believing that the Halloween celebration came directly from Samhain, a day mistakenly attributed directly to the Wiccans rather than to the Celts, you must understand that it is a blend of Hallowmas, a celebration of Catholic origins, as well as the Roman festival called Feralia. On the day of Samhain, the Celtic people would all extinguish their home’s hearth fire. They would gather in front of a blessed bonfire and would sing, dance and listen to the stories that were told during the celebration. At the end of the evening, each person would take some of the bonfire home to relight their heart fire in hopes of ensuring good fortune to their home and family for the coming year. It is said that if your hearth fire would not light from the sacred bonfire, misfortune, even death, would befall someone in the house that very year. By the 19th century, most of the religious aspects of the Halloween celebration had dwindled away and it was mostly a secular holiday, a gathering of community with only some of the remnants of the past clinging to it like the cobwebs of a haunted house. People would still dress up in costume, but less for the original reason of confusing the dead and more for just plain entertainment and fun. European immigrants brought many of their traditions and beliefs with them to the New World, even those that were sometimes frowned upon or scoffed at. Halloween itself was largely disallowed, even forbidden, but in Maryland, the tradition was not only allowed but encouraged. The people there held what they called “play parties” where they would take turns telling each other’s fortunes, dancing, singing and telling ghost stories. The children would dress in costumes and try to scare one another as well. The Irish immigrants came to the new world in great masses, fleeing from the Potato Famine that was starving them to death, and brought with them the Halloween tradition of going door to door looking for sweets and other treats.

Halloween House

Halloween House

The tradition of trick or treating is still a favorite among little children today.There are still many, especially among fundamentalist Christians, who believe that Halloween is nothing more than a celebration of paganism and witchcraft because of some of the traditions that are involved. It was thought that on Halloween night, a young woman could determine who her future spouse would be by staring into a mirror in a darkened room or by peeling an apple in one long strip and then casting the peel over her shoulder. Other traditions involved baking small coins and trinkets as well as a single, plain ring into a barm brack, a type of fruit cake that would be shared among the neighbors. If you got a trinket in your piece – that was your fate for the coming year, with the person who got the ring destined to wed.While the Catholic Church bears no ill will toward the Halloween traditions and the holiday itself, there are some Christian churches who say that it encourages witchcraft and may even lead to Satanism. These churches hold “Hell Houses” meant to scare children and young adults away from the traditions and to lead them back to the church. Some of these churches even hand out pamphlets and religious tracts on Halloween night to be found when the children go through their candy.

 

 

Halloween is an old holiday and it’s evolved from those first Druid & Celtic roots, to what’s celebrated today.  In Canada and the US is where it’s most popular.  Up to 65% of Americans decorate for Halloween and Christmas is the only holiday which is more popular.   More candy is sold on Halloween than on any other holiday and every country which celebrates Halloween at all, does so in its own unique way.

Halloween in Austria

Just like at Christmas in North America with milk & cookies for Santa, Austrians have a tradition of leaving water, bread, and a lighted lamp on the table before going to bed on Halloween night.  From long ago, the tradition held that these types of items would welcome any dead souls back to the land of the living.  Austrians felt that Halloween was a night chock full of cosmic energy and this made the dead souls’ return for a night much easier.

Halloween in Canada

Irish and Scottish immigrants arrived in Canada during the 1800s.  Festivities included trick or treating and parties, homes decorated with corn stalks and pumpkins, plus the carving of Jack O’Lanterns.

Halloween in Belgium

Belgian’s believe that a black cat crossing someone’s path is unlucky.  If it goes on a ship or enters a home, then that’s also unlucky and Belgians light candles on Halloween to remember dead relatives.

Halloween in Czechoslovakia

Chairs are put by the fireside on Halloween and they are one per family member, plus one for each of their spirits.

Halloween in China

Halloween is known by Teng Chieh here.  Water and food are placed in front of dead relatives’ photographs.  Lanterns and bonfires are lit so that spirits can see the pathway back to earth.  Buddhists make little boats from paper and these are burned when it gets dark and this honors the dead, plus spirits of pretas are released and can ascend into heaven.  Pretas are people who died because they drowned or had an accident and their bodies weren’t able to be buried.  If pretas roam amongst the living, the Chinese feel that it’s dangerous.

Halloween in England

English children used to carve beetroots like Jack O’Lanterns.  They carried these “punkies”  from door to door and sang, then asked for money.  Turnip lanterns were placed on posts to protect the home form spirits roaming around on Halloween.  Sometimes, stones, nuts and vegetables were tossed into a bonfire to scare away spirits and fortune telling was often read into the remains of the bonfire in the morning.  The English people no longer celebrated Halloween when Martin Luther had his protestant reformation.  Costumes and trick or treating have crossed back over the pond into England and the children there go out on Halloween.  Most seniors in England don’t know what it’s all about.

 

 

Halloween in France

Until 1996, Halloween was thought of as an American holiday and the French do not celebrate it to honor the dearly departed.

Halloween in Hong Kong

Yue Lan is the name of the Halloween celebration in Hong Kong.  Spirits supposedly roam freely for 24 hours and people there burned photos of money and fruit.

Halloween in Germany

Residents of Germany put their knives away on Halloween because returning spirits could be harmed.

Halloween in Japan

In Japan, the Obon festival is similar to Halloween.  Food is prepared and red lanterns are hung all over.  When lit candles are placed into the lanterns they are set adrift on rivers.  Families light fires to show ancestors the path to their families and community dances are put on, and memorial stones are cleaned during the Obon Festival.  The Japanese festival happens during August or July.

Halloween in Ireland

This is supposed to be the birthplace of Halloween.  Bonfires are lit in the countryside and children dress in costumes then go trick or treating.  Parties are given in neighborhoods and games are played, one of which is bobbing for apples.  A type of fruitcake is eaten on Halloween and a treasure is buried inside for someone to find.

 

 

Halloween 2012

Halloween 2012

 

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