3-D Printed Cells from Eye

3-D Tissue Printing: Cells from the Eye Inkjet-Printed for the First Time:

3-D Tissue Printing: Cells from the Eye Inkjet-Printed for the First Time

3-D Tissue Printing: Cells from the Eye Inkjet-Printed for the First Time

 

The breakthrough could lead to the production of artificial tissue grafts made from the variety of cells found in the human retina and may aid in the search to cure blindness.

At the moment the results are preliminary and provide proof-of-principle that an inkjet printer can be used to print two types of cells from the retina of adult rats―ganglion cells and glial cells. This is the first time the technology has been used successfully to print mature central nervous system cells and the results showed that printed cells remained healthy and retained their ability to survive and grow in culture.

Co-authors of the study Professor Keith Martin and Dr Barbara Lorber, from the John van Geest Centre for Brain Repair, University of Cambridge, said: “The loss of nerve cells in the retina is a feature of many blinding eye diseases. The retina is an exquisitely organised structure where the precise arrangement of cells in relation to one another is critical for effective visual function.”

“Our study has shown, for the first time, that cells derived from the mature central nervous system, the eye, can be printed using a piezoelectric inkjet printer. Although our results are preliminary and much more work is still required, the aim is to develop this technology for use in retinal repair in the future.”

The ability to arrange cells into highly defined patterns and structures has recently elevated the use of 3D printing in the biomedical sciences to create cell-based structures for use in regenerative medicine.

In their study, the researchers used a piezoelectric inkjet printer device that ejected the cells through a sub-millimetre diameter nozzle when a specific electrical pulse was applied. They also used high speed video technology to record the printing process with high resolution and optimised their procedures accordingly.

“In order for a fluid to print well from an inkjet print head, its properties, such as viscosity and surface tension, need to conform to a fairly narrow range of values. Adding cells to the fluid complicates its properties significantly,” commented Dr Wen-Kai Hsiao, another member of the team based at the Inkjet Research Centre in Cambridge.

Once printed, a number of tests were performed on each type of cell to see how many of the cells survived the process and how it affected their ability to survive and grow.

The cells derived from the retina of the rats were retinal ganglion cells, which transmit information from the eye to certain parts of the brain, and glial cells, which provide support and protection for neurons.

“We plan to extend this study to print other cells of the retina and to investigate if light-sensitive photoreceptors can be successfully printed using inkjet technology. In addition, we would like to further develop our printing process to be suitable for commercial, multi-nozzle print heads,” Professor Martin concluded.

3-D Printed Magazine Lets You Fire Hundreds of Rounds

New 3-D Printed Rifle Magazine Lets You Fire Hundreds of Rounds:

New 3-D Printed Rifle Magazine Lets You Fire Hundreds of Rounds

New 3-D Printed Rifle Magazine Lets You Fire Hundreds of Rounds

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

In response to the upsurge in gun violence, politicians are proposing restrictions on the number of bullets that handgun and rifle magazines can hold. And just as they do, new printing technology blows holes right through that debate. The 3-D printing gunsmiths at Defense Distributed are about to release blueprints for an upgraded magazine that won’t degrade even after you fire hundreds of rounds. Meet the “Cuomo.” It’s a new printed magazine for your AR-15 rifle, soon to be available for download, and it holds 30 bullets. Upgrading an earlier design that didn’t hold up particularly well after extended use, it’s an unsubtle rejoinder to New York Governor Andrew Cuomo, who recently signed a magazine-restriction law limiting mags to seven rounds. Defense Distributed is basically saying that if you’re not going to be allowed to buy larger magazines in the near future, you can print them yourself — if, that is, 3-D printed weapons don’t fall into legislators’ own crosshairs. In recent tests at a gun range near Austin, Texas, Defense Distributed fired a total of 342 rounds using the magazine with no issues, according to the group’s founder, Cody Wilson. The group fired 227 of those rounds using full automatic fire, while swapping out the barrels on the rifle to keep them cool. The group also uploaded a promotional video, seen above, demonstrating a portion of the test. “We had been making revisions to the file demonstrated in January, but it was at its core not a good file, so total redesign from scratch,” Wilson e-mails Danger Room from London, where he’s attending a conference for the Bitcoin digital currency. “The mag won’t fail in limited engagements,” he added. The problem with the first magazine, according to Wilson, were “slightly uneven dimensions,” including a magazine catch slot — where the magazine locks into the rifle — that caused repeated jams. The group also reverse-engineered the device, but found the magazine’s spring-loaded follower — which feeds bullets upwards as the rifle cycles through them — and its base plate had “tiny impractical parts.” It wasn’t really workable, so Wilson redesigned the shape and added a new follower. “Basically the mag is a total redesign,” he says. Defense Distributed emerged at the forefront of 3-D printed weapons last September after a printer leased by the group had its contract voided — and printer seized — by 3-D printer firm Stratasys. This kind of printing, or “additive manufacturing,” involves using layers of thermoplastics and computer-aided design files to construct everyday objects. The group’s move into printing magazines is a more recent shift. Printable magazine blueprints have been available online for more than a year, but most designs are crude and impractical. Defense Distributed also plans to produce a 40-round magazine for AK-47-type rifles. But some legislators urge restrictions on 3-D printed weapons, so technology doesn’t render new gun laws obsolete. Last month, Rep. Steve Israel of New York called for 3-D printed magazines to be banned. More broadly, magazines of more than 10 rounds were restricted until the 1994 Assault Weapons Ban expired in 2004. New York’s recent law banning magazines greater than seven rounds would also make Wilson’s magazine illegal — but difficult to control if getting one is as simple as printing it off the internet. Hosting may not be a problem. The group had early blueprints pulled from the Thingiverse printable file database last year by its owner, MakerBot industries, with another purge of gun parts to follow after the tragic mass shooting at an elementary school in Newtown, Connecticut. But Defense Distributed has since set up its own online clearinghouse Defcad. “Since this project is really about open source software, we know we need to release strong, usable templates,” Wilson writes. “If we really want to encourage adoption and experimentation, we’ve got to start releasing workable STLs and reliable CAD files.” The upgraded printable magazine should be online at Defcad in the next few days.

 

 

3-D TV without any glasses

3D Movies Without Any Need of Glasses:

3d-glasses

3d-glasses

3D movies can be enjoyed on TV without any viewing glasses, thanks to a new German technology. The 3D movies currently available on Blu-ray are based on two different perspectives: two images, one for each eye. However, autostereoscopic displays need five to 10 views of the same scene (depending on the type). In the future, the number will probably be even more. This is because these displays have to present a 3D image in such a manner that it can be seen from different angles — indeed, there is more than one place to sit on a sofa, and you should be able to get the same three dimensional impressions from any position. Researchers at the Fraunhofer Institute for Telecommunications at Heinrich-Hertz Institute (HHI) in Berlin have developed a technology that converts a Blu-ray’s existing 3D content in a manner that enables them to be shown on autostereoscopic displays. “We take the existing two images and generate a depth map… a map that assigns a specific distance from the camera to each object,” says Christian Riechert, research fellow at HHI. Previous systems were only capable of generating such depth maps at a dramatically slower pace; sometimes they even required manual adaptation. Real-time conversion, by contrast, is like simultaneous interpretation: The viewer inserts a 3D Blu-ray disc, gets comfortable in front of the TV screen and enjoys the movie – without the glasses. Researchers have already finished the software that converts these data. In the next step, the scientists, working in collaboration with industry partners, intend to port it onto a hardware product so that it can be integrated into TV. Nevertheless, it will still take at least another calendar year before the technology hits store shelves. Researchers will unveil this technology in Berlin at this year’s IFA trade show from Aug 31 to Sep 5.

3-D Nano printer World Record

3-D Printer With Nano-Precision:

3D Printer

3D Printer

Printing three-dimensional objects with incredibly fine details is now possible using “two-photon lithography.” With this technology, tiny structures on a nanometer scale can be fabricated. Researchers at the Vienna University of Technology (TU Vienna) have now made a major breakthrough in speeding up this printing technique: The high-precision-3D-printer at TU Vienna is orders of magnitude faster than similar devices. This opens up completely new areas of application, such as in medicine.  Setting a New World Record.  The 3D printer uses a liquid resin, which is hardened at precisely the correct spots by a focused laser beam. The focal point of the laser beam is guided through the resin by movable mirrors and leaves behind a hardened line of solid polymer, just a few hundred nanometers wide. This fine resolution enables the creation of intricately structured sculptures as tiny as a grain of sand. “Until now, this technique used to be quite slow,” says Professor Jürgen Stampfl from the Institute of Materials Science and Technology at the TU Vienna. “The printing speed used to be measured in millimeters per second — our device can do five meters in one second.” In two-photon lithography, this is a world record.  This amazing progress was made possible by combining several new ideas. “It was crucial to improve the steering mechanism of the mirrors,” says Jan Torgersen (TU Vienna). The mirrors are continuously in motion during the printing process. The acceleration and deceleration-periods have to be tuned very precisely to achieve high-resolution results at a record-breaking speed.  Photoactive Molecules Harden the Resin.  3D-printing is not all about mechanics — chemists had a crucial role to play in this project too. “The resin contains molecules, which are activated by the laser light. They induce a chain reaction in other components of the resin, so-called monomers, and turn them into a solid,” says Jan Torgersen. These initiator molecules are only activated if they absorb two photons of the laser beam at once — and this only happens in the very center of the laser beam, where the intensity is highest. In contrast to conventional 3D-printing techniques, solid material can be created anywhere within the liquid resin rather than on top of the previously created layer only. Therefore, the working surface does not have to be specially prepared before the next layer can be produced, which saves a lot of time. A team of chemists led by Professor Robert Liska (TU Vienna) developed the suitable ingredients for this special resin.  Researchers all over the world are working on 3D printers today — at universities as well as in industry. Because of the dramatically increased speed, much larger objects can now be created in a given period of time. This makes two-photon-lithography an interesting technique for industry.  At the TU Vienna, scientists are now developing bio-compatible resins for medical applications. They can be used to create scaffolds to which living cells can attach themselves facilitating the systematic creation of biological tissues. The 3d printer could also be used to create tailor made construction parts for biomedical technology or nanotechnology.